Category Archives: Programs

Keeping Score at Nuremberg: A Rare 1945 GI World Series Scorecard

Taking stock of the past three months’ worth of Chevrons and Diamonds articles, it is easy to discern a few emerging content trends that reflect the types of artifacts that are continually being added to our collection. In that span of time, three separate Chevrons and Diamonds articles have documented some of our recent acquisitions of noteworthy scorecards or programs originating from rather historic service team games that were played during World War II. Just as most parents can’t choose a favorite among their own children, none of the scorecards, programs or scorebooks within our collection receives such prized status, though there are some genuine stand-outs among the pack.

Collecting historic baseball military ephemera is far more rewarding than similar pieces from the professional game (or, at least that is our admittedly biased opinion). In terms of scarcity or rarity of items, those that were distributed at a major league game are of the most common by comparison to items distributed at a wartime service league or exhibition game. During the 1940s major league ballparks had seating capacities that ranged from the mid-30,000s in the smaller markets to 57,000 for the crown jewel of the big leagues, Yankee Stadium. One would have to assume that scorecards and programs printed for each game numbered in the range 30-50% of the capacity for each game, if not more. By WWII, teams employed the practice of limiting printing runs to a handful of editions throughout the season (changing only the actual scoresheets and specific rosters pages inside the booklets to reflect the current visitors and lineups). Despite these production factors, the sheer numbers of those individual-game scorecards that were printed increase the odds of having more surviving pieces to collect. In contrast, the pieces printed for a military game would number in the hundreds at best, resulting in far fewer surviving examples.

Survivability of military baseball ephemera (just as with those from the professional game) can vary dependent upon a few factors such as paper quality, modes of transporting the pieces home or just general handling (folding or being stuffed into a pocket). There is a notable difference in the quality of paper used by professional teams and the very rudimentary medium used to produce the service team pieces, especially for those printed in the overseas theaters. Due to these factors, the surviving military items are far outnumbered by their wartime major and minor league counterparts. Locating and acquiring a military scorecard, scorebook or program in excellent or better condition is next to impossible solely based on the the aforementioned factors.

Scarcity due to production, handling, transportation and storage are only part of the story to consider. Recognizing that as the last of the World War II veterans are passing, their heirs are often saddled with determining the disposition of the accumulation more than 70 years since their family member returned from the war. To the untrained eye, a piece of military baseball ephemera might appear to be nothing more than smelly old paper falling victim to a quick purge during a home clean-out and subsequently ending up in the trash. Those pieces that escape all of these situations and make their way into collections (such as ours) or to a museum are exceedingly scarce.

For the select few collectors of baseball militaria, items from notable games don’t typically slip past our watchful eyes undetected very often which is not to suggest that it never happens. However, when it does occur, the sheer joy of being the one to land such a piece with minimal (or without) competition from other collectors means that the acquisition costs are minimized. What determines the notability of a service team game and subsequently impacts the rarity (and collector-value) of military baseball scorecards?

The cover of the Third Army Baseball Championship series games score card. The 71st ID Defeated the 76th ID in five games that were played in early August, 1945.

During World War II, many significant service team games (or series) were played and were well-documented in the press by sportswriters (for domestic games) and war correspondents (for overseas games). Contests such as the 1943 exhibition game played between a combined team of Yankees and Indians (coached by Babe Ruth) versus the Navy Pre-Flight (UNC Chapel Hill) “Cloudbusters” or the 1944 Army versus Navy Championship series in the Hawaiian Islands have garnered significant attention both at the time of the games and, more recently, over the last decade. Scorecards from these games tend to surface on occasion though not nearly as much as their major league counterparts.

In more than a decade of researching, collecting and observing the baseball militaria market, we have been diligent in documenting and tracking artifacts (such as scorecards) that are listed for sale (or at auction) along with monitoring the corresponding pricing trends. During that period of observation, we have seen only three examples (two of which we acqired) of the scorecard (shown at right) originating from the 1945 Third Army Championship series played in Nuremberg, Germany. The August 11-13, 1945 (originally scheduled from August 7-9) series amounted to a preliminary play-off round in the run up to the overall championship of the European Theater of Operations (ETO) and pitted the “Onaways” of the 76th Infantry Division against the “Red Circlers” of the 71st Infantry Division (see: Authenticating a Military Championship Baseball and Third Army – Baseball Championship Series). Led by the dominant pitching performance of former Cincinnati Reds phenom Ewell Blackwell, the Red Circlers eliminated the Onaways in five games.

The pitcher (possibly Earl Ghelf) starts his windup in one of their US Army Ground Forces Championship Series Games against the 7ist Inf. Red Circlers.

Next up for the Third Army Champion-71st Infantry Division “Red Circlers” was the US Army Ground Forces Championship Series against the 7th Army Champion “Blue and Grays” of the 29th Infantry Division. This best of five games-series was played in both Nuremberg and Manheim, Germany with the ‘Circlers’ starting pitchers Ewell Blackwell and Bill Ayres dominating the opposing batters. The 71st swept the 29th in three straight to advance to the ETO World Series. While we have yet to uncover a scorecard or program, a significant group of photographs and other associated documents (along with a 7th Army Championship medal) originating from one of the 29th’s pitchers, former minor league pitcher, Earl Ghelf surfaced in early 2018 (see: Metal Championship: Two 7th Army Victors of the 29th Division and European Theater Baseball: the 29th Infantry Division Blue and Grays at Nurnberg for more details) which we were able to secure.

Baseball in Occupied Europe
In the weeks following the collapse and unconditional surrender of the Third Reich, U.S. Army leadership was successful in assembling one of the largest known baseball leagues featuring more than 200,000 soldiers and airmen filling rosters of bases and units stationed throughout the occupied European Theater. The autumn-1945 GI World Series was the culmination of the season-long competition throughout the continent with teams that consisted of regular soldiers playing alongside former minor and major leaguers, all of whom fought and served in the war in theater. By season’s end, some of the teams who made it to the lower level championships (such as the Seventh and Third Army series) had morphed, absorbing the top talent from their vanquished opponents within their leagues (for example, former Chicago White Sox infielder-turned-combat-medic Don Kolloway served in the 69th Infantry during the war and played for unit’s team before being tapped to join the 29th’s team after being defeated in the 7th Army Championships) as their commanders attempted to improve the odds of winning the championship for their unit.

Having eliminated the 76th ID’s Onaways and Blue and Grays of the 29th ID, the Red Circlers found themselves facing off against the The Advance Section, Communications Zone (ADSEC/COMZ) All-Stars based at Oise, France. This formidable opponent was led by a non-commissioned officer (who was a former major league pitcher), was unconventional with their roster. Named the Oise All-Stars, this group fought their way into the semi-final series that pitted them against the 66th Infantry Division and the 71st Infantry Division; three teams fighting for the two spots in the ETO World Series. This semi-final was a double-elimination contest of three games; the first of which was played on August 30 (71st Infantry Division versus Oise All-Stars) and a double-header on September 1 (71st Infantry Division versus 66th Infantry Division and Oise All-Stars versus 66th infantry Division). The 66th division was eliminated after sustaining losses to the 71st and Oise leaving the victors to advance to the GI World Series.

According to Gary Bedingfield, a military baseball historian and founder of Baseball In Wartime, there are a few questions surrounding the name of the Oise team. Bedingfield wrote in his Baseball in Wartime Newsletter Vol 7 No 39 September/October 2015, “Reims became the site of the U.S. Army’s redeployment camps, all of which were named after American cities. There were 18 of these “tented cities” scattered throughout the Reims area. This area was designated the Oise (pronounced “waz”) Intermediate Section by the U.S. Army, named after the local river and the Oise département, a French administrative division that covered much of the area.”

This scorecard was used when the GI World Series shifted for the September 6-7, 1945 games were played at Athletic Field in Reims, France (the Oise All-Stars “home field” for the series). This is the only other known example of a scorecard from the 1945 GI World Series.

The OISE All Stars baseball team was assembled by former Brooklyn Dodgers pitcher, Sergeant Sam Nahem and featured a roster populated predominantly with former semi-pro, collegiate and minor leaguers. Only one Oise player, other than Nahem, played at the major league level. Going against unwritten rules (both in professional baseball and in the armed forces), Nahem insisted on adding two former Negro Leaguers to his roster. Willard Brown and Leon Day, undoubtedly ruffling some feathers in the Army establishment. Aside from the unique composition of Nahem’s roster, the team’s name has been the source of confusion. As Bedingfield wrote, “A strange myth has appeared over the years – that I, myself, have used at one time or another – that Oise stood for Overseas Invasion Service Expedition. I can find absolutely no evidence to support this and maintain that the Oise All-Stars were named for the Oise Intermediate Section. Other Sections in France included the Loire Base Section and the Seine Base Section, home of the formidable Seine Base Clowns, a ball team operated by Pacific Coast Leaguer pitcher Chuck Eisenmann.”

The GI World Series was a five-game affair with games one, two and five being played in Soldiers Field at Nuremberg Stadium and the “road” games (three and four) being played at the (long-ago demolished) Headquarters Command (HQ) Athletic Field in Reims. Nahem’s Oise All-Stars were evenly matched with the “Red Circlers” of the 71st which resulted in a great series for the fans to witness.

  • Game 1 (September 2, 1945 | Soldiers’ Field): Oise All-Stars 2 – 71st Infantry Division 9
  • Game 2 (September 3, 1945 | Soldiers’ Field): Oise 2 – 71st ID 1
  • Game 3 (September 6, 1945 | HQ Command Athletic Field): 71st ID 1 – Oise 2
  • Game 4 (September 7, 1945 | HQ Command Athletic Field): 71st ID 5 – Oise 0
  • Game 5 (September 8, 1945 | Soldiers’ Field): Oise 2 – 71st ID 1

The specifics of each game and the men who filled the rosters are laid out in great detail in Bedingfield’s September/October 2015 newsletter.

Until just a few months ago, the only scorecard that we have seen is one that was used for the two games played at the Oise All-Stars home field, Headquarters Command Athletic Field in Reims. Unfortunately, no copies of this piece have surfaced to the collector market in more than a decade of our searching. The piece (shown above) bears similarities to the hand-illustrated piece used at the 1945 Navy World Series in Hawaii. Regardless of any and all searching and maintaining watchful eyes on the market, nothing from the GI World Series has become available; not even the HQ Command Athletic Field scorecard.

A few months ago, one of our online auction searches that seldom produces results that are worthy of deeper investigation, finally listed an item that caught our attention. A strange title that read, “WWII GI  Scorebook Nurnberg Field USFET W1945 Unused Baseball,” with an accompanying-yet-tiny image (that was barely discernible) was enough to prevent me from performing my routine action of deleting the results. Upon opening the link and viewing the photos of the item, we were still unsure of what was listed. Very clearly, the piece shown was a service team baseball scorecard that was printed on the typical low-grade paper that was commonly employed for this purpose in all wartime theaters but the printed information wasn’t registering as we inspected each associated image. For some reason (perhaps due the lack of documented examples), the most obvious information printed across the cover didn’t immediately stand out. The interior pages featured blank scoresheets that were devoid of commonly seen team rosters or game line-ups which offered no further clues. Returning to view the lead image in the auction listing, something finally clicked and the reality surrounding this piece suddenly materialized. For the first time in more than ten years, a scorecard from the GI World Series had finally come to market.

How could anyone not notices the substantial lettering that seemingly broadcast that this scorecard was from the 1945 GI World Series?

With only two days remaining until the auction’s close, there was a lone bid which was incredibly low for such an important piece of baseball history.The seller’s starting price was merely $7.00. Not knowing the experience level of the bidder that I was hoping to wrest the scorecard away from left me wondering if his maximum price was in the sphere of reality as to the value of the scorecard. Noting the other bidder had a feedback count of less than two hundred, we coupled that with the behavior of early bidding (perhaps one of the most common mistakes made by inexperienced bidders) and decided that we would prepare a sniped bid and hope that it was enough to supplant the competition. Anxiously awaiting the auction’s close and the bad news that we were going to miss out on this piece due to its rarity and collector value, the congratulatory email regarding our bid arrived along with the invoice for payment. Our surprise at winning the auction was immediately surpassed by the sale price: $10.50 which was just $3.50 above the listed price and, $0.50 greater than the competing bid (maximum)! The seller listed the shipping price as $4.06 which was a bit lower than what we typically encounter with these items but it wasn’t so low to cause any sort of concern…until it actually became a concern.

This scorecard was most likely printed ahead of the teams being decided (by playoffs). The date as indicated by the “2” is printed in a silver-ink leading to the idea that the dates were applied as needed .

Note: In prefacing the next sequence of events, please understand that this article was not written admonish or to chastise the seller. Sharing details regarding all aspects of the transaction is done so with the hope that our readers consider what transpired as they engage in their own selling activities (we have omitted the seller’s name and altered the listing title to preserve their anonymity). 

After more than two weeks since submitting payment for the scorecard, the seller still hadn’t updated the listing with any shipping details (it was still marked as not being shipped) and was completely silent with regards to communication, an inquiry was dispatched through the auction provider’s messaging system. The brief response from the seller, “No tracking number. Mailed with a stamp which is why I gave you a partial refund,” was a little strange since I hadn’t asked for anything more than a status and a tracking number. The partial refund from the seller was $0.50 causing further confusion for us.

The beauty of this Nuremberg GI World Series scorecard lies with both covers as the interior is lacking team information. At least one can learn to score a game with this piece.

What amounts to a sponsors’ page, the GI World Series program’s back cover features adverts from AFN-Munich and the Southern Germany Stars and Stripes.

A few days following the seller’s strange message and partial refund, the letter carrier delivered the package containing the scorecard with $0.45 postage due. True to his message, the seller did exactly as was stated; the piece was stuffed into a thin and appropriately-sized paper envelope with a $0.55 Forever stamp affixed. There was no padding, backing boards or anything to protect the piece from moisture damage, inadvertent folding or from harm inflicted by postal sorting machinery which left this priceless artifact almost entirely exposed. Without purchasing postal insurance, there was no tracking. The envelope did receive damage (possibly from the sorting equipment) that tore and creased the envelope. Concern for the scorecard itself was put to rest once it was determined that the piece suffered only curling without being creased. In desiring to pass along the information regarding the arrival of the package, the condition and the additional postage that was paid to receive the envelope, we reached out to the seller. Rather than to address the concerns, the seller responded, “I will give you a full refund instead of the partial refund already provided,” closing out this intriguing saga (which included a fantastic result).

Our intention was to merely point out the issue and hope that subsequent shipments are better protected and postage is properly funded rather than to receive a refund. In the end, we received this incredible artifact without cost. Perhaps we should consider this a gift? Moving on, we were able to press the curl out of the scorecard and add it to the growing collection of baseball militaria paper.

The significance of the GI World Series scorecard (from the Nuremberg-hosted games) lies within the covers. The artwork and the two-color (red and blue) printing (the silver date appears to be applied subsequent to the initial printing) makes for stunning visual imagery on the front cover. The back was printed in three-color (adding black to the mix) and includes an advertisement for the Armed Forces Network (AFN) for radio coverage of the games. Beneath the AFN ad is a colorful advert for the Stars and Stripes newspaper (Southern Germany Edition).

One aspect of the scorecard and the GI World Series games was that it was hosted (at Nuremberg) by USFET (U.S. Forces, European Theater) which was known, during wartime combat operations, as ETOUSA (European Theater of Operations, United States Army). It makes sense that the GI World Series would be hosted at Nuremberg Stadium by the overall theater command, however prior to discovering this scorecard, this aspect was not known.

Located on the lower left edge of the program is the information detailing the date and the Army unit that produced the piece.

Confirmation of our assessment regarding the the game date being applied during a secondary printing is located at the bottom edge of the back cover. The date, 30 / Aug. 45, indicates that the scorecard was being printed as the first game of the semi-finals was being played.  The date on the cover, September 2, 1945 also indicates that this scorecard was printed for Game One of the GI World Series.

The Chevrons and Diamonds trend has continued with yet another article detailing a service team scorecard however, with the acquisition of this incredible find, we are certain that our readers will be just as fascinated by the discovery if this historic piece. In shining a spotlight upon scorecards that were previously undocumented, we are perhaps effectively increasing our competition for the still-needed HQ Command Athletic Field piece. However with the circumstances surrounding the acquisition of e the Nuremberg piece, we aren’t too concerned about our chances.

Resources:

 

 

A Passion for the Troops: Joe E. Brown’s All Pacific Recreation Fund

It is rather odd and perhaps, a little bit disjointed to author a piece that is technically a precursor or an actual “part I” of a two-part story after researching, writing and publishing the succeeding or part II.  few weeks ago, we delved into one of the rarer wartime service-team baseball game programs that one can collect: a substantial scorebook from the 1944 All Recreation Fund game that pitted the Service All-Stars versus both the Pacific Coast League’s (PCL) Los Angeles Angels and the Hollywood Stars (see: Service All-Stars Raising Funds on the Diamond for their Comrades in the Trenches).

“Hopefully, we can source the 1943 All Pacific Recreation Fund program to round out the collection and to properly document the games and the participants.”

Just days following our article regarding the 1944 program published, the 1943 program and scorebook arrived to our door sending this author over the top with elation. Now, two of our most sought-after programs from domestic service team baseball programs moved off of our want list.

The fine print on the cover differentiates this book from the 1944 program.

While the roster for the 1944 Service All Stars feature featured some well-known names from the professional ranks, garnering modest attention from the press, the caliber of talent that took the field in the inaugural charity baseball game in 1943 was quite exceptional.  Featuring three future Cooperstown enshrinees, the Service All Stars posed a considerable challenge for the PCL hosts, at least on paper.

1943 All Pacific Recreation Fund Game – Service All-Stars:

Name Pos Command Location Club Affiliation
Rinaldo Ardizoia P Army Air Forces, McClellan Field, Sacramento, California New York Yankees
Harry Danning C 6th Ferrying Group, Long Beach, California New York Giants
Joseph DiMaggio OF Army Air Forces, Santa Ana, Costa Mesa, California New York Yankees
Bud Doleshall P U.S. Army, Ft. MacArthur, San Pedro, California Sacramento Senators
A. R.  Edwards C Army Ordnance, Santa Ana, Costa Mesa, California St. Louis Browns
Aubrey Epps C U.S. Marine Corps, Camp Pendleton, Camp Pendleton, California Knoxville Smokies
Froilan “Nanny” Fernandez IF 6th Ferrying Group, Long Beach, California Boston Braves
Stanley Goletz P Army Air Force, Williams Field, Chandler, Arizona Chicago White Sox
Hal  Hirshon OF U.S. Marine Corps, Camp Pendleton, Camp Pendleton, California Detroit Tigers
Myril Hoag OF Army Air Forces, Mather Field, Sacramento, California Chicago White Sox
Walter Judnich OF Army Air Forces, McClellan Field, Sacramento, California St. Louis Browns
Hubert Kittle P 6th Ferrying Group, Sacramento, California Oakland Oaks
Art Lilly IF 6th Ferrying Group, Long Beach, California Hollywood Stars
Dario Lodigiani IF Army Air Forces, McClellan Field, Sacramento, California Chicago White Sox
Theo “Ted” Lyons P U.S. Marine Corps, Camp Pendleton, camp Pendleton, California Chicago White Sox
Joseph Marty OF Army Air Force, Hamilton Field, Novato, Novato, California Philadelphia Phillies
Myron McCormick OF Army Air Forces, McClellan Field, Sacramento, California Cincinnati Reds
John Pesky IF U.S. Navy, Atlanta Naval Air Station, Atlanta, Georgia Boston Red Sox
Jack Price IF Army Ordnance, Santa Ana, Costa Mesa, California Nashville Vols
Charles “Red”  Ruffing P 6th Ferrying Group, Sacramento, California New York Yankees
Charles “Chuck” Stevens IF 6th Ferrying Group, Long Beach, California St. Louis Browns
Louis Stringer IF Army Air Force, Williams Field, Chandler, Arizona Chicago Cubs
Max West OF 6th Ferrying Group, Long Beach, California Boston Braves

As was seen in the following year’s game, the 1943 event drew a capacity crowd to witness the type of charity game that had become somewhat of a commonplace occurrence around the country with games staged between professional and military teams. This particular event was directly responsible for purchasing more than $25,000 in sporting equipment that was shipped throughout the Pacific combat theater to Army and Navy personnel. Inspired by his early USO-like tours to both entertain and encourage the troops during his early-WWII travels to the South Pacific, comedian Joe E. Brown was following through on his promise to the men he visited. The All Pacific Recreation fund was established and the Service All-Stars game versus the Los Angeles Angels and Hollywood Stars was his flagship event.

With a capacity of less than 13,000 fans, Gilmore Field’s turnstiles clicked a total of 21,742 times for the 1943 game with not a single pass being given (not even to the press).  Leading off on defense for the top-half of the first inning, the Los Angeles Angels took the field as the 6th Ferrying Group’s first baseman, Chuck Stevens (who went two-for-three) leading off with a triple. Stevens, a local native (from Long Beach) who had previously played in the St. Louis Brown’s organization. In the previous year, Stevens played for the Toledo Mud Hens who took down Mickey Cochrane’s Great Lakes Bluejackets, a veritable team of professional all-stars serving in the U.S. Navy. Nanny Fernandez (0-for 3) followed Stevens in the order with Wally Judnich (Stevens’ 1941 Browns teammate) batting third (also hitless in the game). Batting cleanup was former Pacific Coast Leaguer (and New York Yankee), Joe DiMaggio who accounted for much of the Service All-Star’s offensive power (4-for-4 with two home runs).

The Service All-Stars collected a total of 13 hits and racked up eight runs while only allowing the Angles and Hollywood to manage six hits (including the two solo home runs by Hollywood’s Babe Herman and Los Angeles’ Rip Russell) to the Coast League team’s two runs.

Similar to the 1944 game program, the 1943 issue is more book-like than what was common during the 1940s. The half-magazine sized booklet is constructed of a high-quality, heavy paper stock with a semi-gloss finish. The cover art (used for both the ’43 and ’44 games) is two-color-printed (red and blue) with the interior pages all monochromatic blue.

Aside from the plethora of sponsors pages and advertisements, the content throughout the book is superior to that of any other program (that we have seen) from service team baseball during World War II. The rosters and team photos are clear and the players depicted are easily discernible (including with the Los Angeles and Hollywood team photos). The team rosters are very complete (despite some obvious errors – Navy Ensign Johnny Pesky is listed as serving in the U.S. Army) offering great details about the service players’ 1943 duty stations.

In addition to completing the All Pacific Recreation Fund game program collection, what makes the 1943 program even more special is that this copy came from the estate of one of the players who factored considerably in the game. Though it isn’t the first piece to arrive into the Chevrons and Diamonds collection from the life-long baseball man, Chuck Stevens, it is certainly one of the most cherished pieces (there will be upcoming articles regarding the Chuck Stevens pieces of which we are honored to now be caretakers of).

Our time has been considerably consumed by several activities (in addition to family and work priorities) and there are several future articles forthcoming surrounding additional service team scorecards as well as a considerable effort to update the Library of Military Baseball Scorecards, Score-books and Game Programs with these two All Pacific Recreation All Stars game programs along with an incredible array of Great Lakes items (stay tuned!).

Service All-Stars Raising Funds on the Diamond for their Comrades in the Trenches

The United States entry into World War II was a response to a national crisis that was unprecedented at that time. Once the shock began to subside, the angered response was rapid as Americans began to arrive at military recruiting stations throughout the country. As devastating as the 9/11 attacks were on the United States, the corresponding rise to take up arms was minuscule by comparison and only a small fraction of stateside Americans lent hands to support the veterans or their families. In 1942, the idea of the entire nation pulling together with singularity in pursuit of victory over a common enemy meant that all Americans would need to participate even if they couldn’t serve on the battlefield.

During World War II, Hollywood was an active participant in the war effort. Actors, writers, directors, cinematographers and producers contributed much like the rest of the nation – they enlisted and served. Still others participated by creating troop training films, documentaries and other audio-visual aids used to instruct and inform our service members. Entertaining troops during WWII was a privilege and honor for members and employees of Hollywood, many of whom would participate in the United Services Organization’s (USO) traveling entertainment shows.

The USO was synonymous with legendary actor/comedian Bob Hope.  Before Hope traveled the globe with his shows, another comedian and actor set the tone for Hope and the USO. Joe E. Brown’s career emerged from the silent film era as he appeared in dozens of motion pictures before he transitioned to the small screen later in life. Brown had a passion for the game of baseball that paralleled his patriotism and desire to serve (though he was too old at age 50 when the U.S. was pulled into WWII). Both of Brown’s sons enlisted to fight. Brown’s son Donald was killed in a crash of the A-20 Havoc he was piloting near Palm Springs, California on October 8, 1942 furthering his drive to help troops however, he could.

In 1943, Joe E. Brown founded the All Pacific Recreation Fund, “the purpose of which,” according to the organization was to, “make life just a little more livable for our boys who are far from home and all of its comforts and conveniences and fun. Just to be able to choose up sides and stage an honest-to gosh ball game with honest-to gosh bats, balls and gloves makes the far-flung islands and strange lands seem a mite closer to home for these kids. Even to read about sports helps – but when equipment is available, it’s much more fun and relaxing actually to participate. And that’s the purpose of the All Pacific Recreation Fund, to provide the utensils for play.”  Similar to Clark Griffith’s Professional Base Ball Fund (see Ted Williams: BATtered, Abused and Loved) during WWII (and his earlier Ball and Bat Fund from World War I), Brown’s organization focused on providing equipment directly into the Pacific Theater of Operations.

Like so many wartime sports programs and scorebooks, this (All Pacific Recreation Fund) one, though simple, features Uncle Sam prominently situated on the globe.

By 1944, all-star games were almost a common event for baseball fans as they were a foundational tool used by several organizations to raise capital for various service member needs, including sports equipment and offsetting their financial hardships (through Army and Navy Relief Societies). On August 26, the All Pacific Recreation Fund hosted a game between service all stars and both the Hollywood Stars and Los Angeles Angels, of the Pacific Coast League (PCL). The roster of the service all-stars featured a line-up of soldiers, sailors and airmen who prior to the war, were professional ball players, several of whom had major league experience.  What made this game unique was that the two PCL teams would split the game – each team playing four and a half innings against the service members who were drawn, rather than across the country, from the Southwest region of the U.S.

With the impending close of June, 1942, the ranks of the United States armed forces were still building up to meet the demands of a multi-theater war while celebrating substantial morale (Doolittle Raid) and strategic (Battle of Midway) victories. Professional ballplayers were pouring into the ranks, though some of the bigger names (such as Ted Williams and Doe DiMaggio) remained with their ball clubs for the 1942 season.  On the heels of a successful June 26 fund-raising exhibition game between the Yankees, Giants and Dodgers and in preparation for the upcoming Major League All-Star Game, a game that pitted the victors (which ended up being the American League All-Stars) against an assemblage of actively-serving ball players from the armed forces (see: No Amount of Winning Could Ever Offset a Harsh Loss for Mickey Cochrane). The success of the fund-raising effort of this game ($71,000 was raised in support of the Army-Navy Relief and the Ball and Bat fund) set a precedence of charity exhibition games throughout the war.

The following year, charity exhibition baseball games were almost commonplace within the major and minor leagues. Joe E. Brown’s All Pacific Recreation fund staged their first Service All- Star Game on August 21 (1943) that matched the PCL’s Angels and Hollywood Stars against Service All-Stars (a roster that included future Hall of Fame players: Joe DiMaggio, Red Ruffing and Ted Lyons) at Los Angeles’ Wrigley Field, before a crowd of more than 21,000 fans. DiMaggio led the service stars’ hit parade going 4 for 4 with two home runs as the PCL clubs lost, 8-2. The game netted $21,000 for the fund and encourage Joe E. Brown to repeat the event in the following year.

The 1944 Service All Stars roster.

The programs that were created for these games are, by far, the most substantive of those from the wartime military games (at least of those within the Chevrons and Diamonds collection, so far). Not unlike traditional professional game programs, these All Pacific Recreation Fund books have several pages dedicated to paid advertising and identifying sponsors and volunteers who worked to make the games happen. The 1944 Service All-Stars roster has some veterans from the 1943 squad (such as Chuck Stevens, Harry Danning, Nanny Fernandez, Joe Marty and Max West) and the results against the Angels-Stars teams was the same as the previous year.

Name Pos Command Location Club Affiliation
Wes Bailey P Army Air Force, Stockton, California Boston Braves
John Beradino IF U.S. Navy, Wilmington, California Detroit Tigers
Bob Brown IF U.S. Navy Hospital, San Diego, San Diego None
Harry Danning C, Mgr 6th Ferrying Group, Long Beach, California New York Giants
Froilan “Nanny” Fernandez IF 6th Ferrying Group, Long Beach, California Boston Braves
Tony Freitas P Army Air Force, Ellington Field, Houston, Texas Sacramento Senators
Stanley Goletz P Army Air Force, Williams Field, Chandler, Arizona Chicago White Sox
Sidney Hudson P Army Air Force, Waco, Texas Washington Senators
John Jensen OF 6th Ferrying Group, Long Beach, California San Diego Padres
Robert Kahle IF U.S. Navy, Wilmington, California Hollywood Stars
Alex Kampouris IF Army Air Force, Stockton, California Brooklyn Dodgers
Chet Kehn P Army Air Force, Williams Field, Chandler, Arizona Brooklyn Dodgers
Art Lilly IF 6th Ferrying Group, Long Beach, California Hollywood Stars
Joseph Marty OF Army Air Force, Hamilton Field, Novato, California Philadephia Bluejays
Edward Nulty OF 6th Ferrying Group, Long Beach, California Brooklyn Dodgers
Al Olsen P 6th Ferrying Group, Long Beach, California Boston Red Sox
Roy Pitter P 6th Ferrying Group, Sacramento, California New York Yankees
Gerald “Gerry” Priddy IF 6th Ferrying Group, Long Beach, California Washington Senators
Hal  Quick OF Army Air Force, Stockton, California Philadephia Bluejays
Charles “Chuck” Stevens IF 6th Ferrying Group, Long Beach, California St. Louis Browns
Louis Stringer IF Army Air Force, Williams Field, Chandler, Arizona Chicago Cubs
George “Birdie” Tebbetts C Army Air Force, Waco, Texas Detroit Tigers
Max West OF 6th Ferrying Group, Long Beach, California Boston Braves

The August 26 All Star Game provided a near-midpoint break for the Los Angeles and Hollywood teams during their seven-game series. In addition to the exhibition game, time was donated by the umpires, ushers and even the vendors in order to maximize the event for charity. Even the Angels’ President, Don Stewart donated the use of Wrigley Field as 100% of the game’s proceeds (totaling more than $35,000) went to the cause.  $9,000 was raised just from the same of the game’s program.

Major League talent anchored the Service All Stars.

The home half of the frames were split between the Angels (first 4-1/2 innings) and the Stars, for the remaining innings. When the Angels surrendered the game to Hollywood, the score was already out of reach (11-5). In the top of the third, the service stars plated eight runs with the major league power dealing a crushing blow to the Pacific Coast Leaguers. Joe Marty tallied 3 hits (including a triple while Al Olsen, Stan Goletz. Wes Bailey and Tony Frietas pitched for the Service Stars in front of a paying crowd of 7,548 proving to be too much for the Angels and Stars as 16-6 was the final tally.

“That Extra Punch” shoes the mindset of our nation during WWII.

The program from the August 26, 1944 game is printed on satin, lightweight paper stock and though it appears to be in good condition, there is some substantial wear on the front cover. The most invaluable aspect of this program lies not solely with the aesthetics but in documenting the service member ball players’ progression through the war.

Hopefully, we can source the 1943 All Pacific Recreation Fund program to round out the collection and to properly document the games and the participants.

 

 

Johnny “Big Jawn” Mize, WWII Service and His Elusive Signature

The Dodgers were and still are my all-time favorite baseball team if not of all professional sports. With the Red Sox being a close second to the “Blue Crew,” I experienced a bit of a dream (and nightmare) World Series in 2018 where it was a difficulty for me choose the team that I wanted to win the most between the two clubs as they faced each other in  the championship. In 1991 when I made made my first trip to Cooperstown, New York to visit the Baseball Hall of Fame, I was astounded to artifacts from my favorite teams including items from men who played in the first World Series meeting (in 1916) between my two favorite teams. That visit to the Hall of Fame also stirred within me a desire to pursue other facets (besides sports cards) of the collecting hobby, namely autographs.

After visiting the Hall of Fame Museum, I walked around the small village and patronized a small shop that seemed more like an extension of the museum than a store as it was filled with antique baseball memorabilia ranging from autographed baseballs, photographs, bats and other artifacts dating from the 1920s through the 1950s and up to (then) present day. Clearly this business’ clientele was more well-heeled than an active-duty sailor in the U.S. Navy as I could scarcely afford to make a purchase of a baseball artifact. Motivated by the overwhelming inventory of autographed memorabilia, one piece in the store did manage to catch and hold my attention, hatching an idea for me to pursue an area of collecting that I never previously gave much thought. Without any sort of hesitation, I purchased a copy of The Sport Americana Series Baseball Address List by R. J. Smalling and started to make a list of players from the “golden era” of the game that I would target for signatures.

My visit to Cooperstown left a lasting impact on me that punched a few holes in my Dodger-blue colored glasses, leaving me with a significant reduction in my hatred for the Giants. I was able to see beyond the rivalry and recognize the contributions of the players from the game rather than to be limited by the myopia influenced by my passion for a team. This transformation translated into an activity that included writing to veteran players (Hall of Famers, included) and requesting their autographs on various piece that I would send to them. One such player was a big first baseman from Demorest, Georgia (where he was born and raised and returned to after his baseball career ended) who spent his entire career crushing Dodgers (and all other National League) pitching for the St. Louis Cardinals and New York Giants carrying a .324 batting average, an on base percentage of .409 while slugging .588 with and OPS of .997 and almost 300 home runs in ten seasons. His prowess against Brooklyn didn’t cease when he left the National League and donned the pinstripes of the Yankees. Mize faced the Dodgers in 10 World Series games making 23 plate appearances and batted .400 with a .600 slugging percentage and an OBP of .478 and was approaching the end of his career. It goes without mentioning that (as a Dodgers fan) I shouldn’t care for Johnny Mize or his signature.

Mize’s career was one that caught my attention both at the Hall of Fame and as I scoured my copy of the massive Baseball Almanac book (which I still have). What stood out to me among his impressive statistics was the absence of playing time (and stats) from 1943 through 1945. Admittedly, I didn’t know that Mize left his player salary and the life of sport for the uncertainty of life itself in order to don the uniform of the United States Navy. But that is what Mize did in March of 1943 following being notified of a change of status from 3-A (registrant deferred because of hardship to dependents) to 1-A (available for unrestricted military service) – at the time, Mize was the sole provider to one of his aunts however by 1943, the draft boards underwent a change in the way hardships were viewed, especially since fathers (sole providers for their families) were being drafted.

Listed at 6-foot-2-inches and 215 lbs., Johnny Mize was well above the normal sized sailors who served during WWII. Here, the former Cardinals and Giants slugger is being fitted for his undress blue uniform at Great Lakes Naval Training Station in late March, 1943.

This Navy publicity photo was taken in 1944 and used in promotional materials and game programs in the Hawaii Leagues. Mize is shown in his pinstriped Navy home uniform.

The Giants first baseman was purported to have a blood coagulation issue that precluded him from Army service. Reported by the Sporting News, March 18, 1943, Giants manager, Mel Ott mentioned that “he had heard something about John being listed clinically as a bleeder, “meaning that Mize suffered from a form of hemophilia. Cleared for military service, Johnny Mize’s eligibility was transferred from the Army and he opted to join the Navy. While undergoing basic training, Mize was picked up by the Great Lakes Naval Training Station Bluejackets manager, Lieutenant Mickey Cochrane, the former catcher for the Philadelphia Athletics and Detroit Tigers. By the end of May, 1943, Johnny Mize was appearing in the Bluejackets’ lineup as they competed against regional ball clubs and service teams. Mize remained at Great Lakes and on Cochrane’s Bluejackets roster until being transferred to Naval Training Center Bainbridge (Maryland).  While he was playing for the Bainbridge squad, Mize fell ill requiring a break from physical exertion resulting in significant weight-gain during his convalescence. When he returned to duty, Mize was transferred to the West Coast.

In February of 1944, Athletic Specialist 2nd Class Mize departed San Francisco Bay aboard the fleet minelayer, USS Terror (CM-5) and by late Spring, Mize was suiting up for the Naval Air Station Kaneohe Klippers under manager Lieutenant Wes Schulmerich, previously of the Navy Pre-Flight Training program at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (see: Navy Pre-Flight Round-up: The Growth of the Cloudbusters Collection Takes Flight). Though Mize’s impact would be felt, he battled injury for a fair portion of the 1944 season which led to his omission, along with that of the 7th Army Air Force’s Joe DiMaggio, from the Central Pacific All-Stars team due to reduced playing time. Both Mize and DiMaggio joined their respective branch’s All Stars team for the Army-Navy World Series held throughout the Hawaiian Island from September 22 to October 15, 1944 (see: Keeping Score of Major Leaguers Serving in the Pacific and Game 7 – Navy vs Army All-Stars Championship Series, October 1, 1944).

 

In his first two seasons of service team baseball (with the Bluejackets of Great Lakes and the Klippers), Mize didn’t slack off with his offensive production. In 1944 Mize was limited in his plate appearances at NAS Kaneohe due to a lingering injury.*

Year Club AB R H 2B 3B HR RBI Avg
1943 Great Lakes 251 68 105 8 11 103 .418
1944 Kaneohe 70 11 22 4 0 6 19 .314
Totals 321 79 127 4 8 17 122 .396

In early 1945, LT. Bill Dickey tabbed Mize for duty in the Western Pacific participating with other professional ball players (serving in the Navy) in a goodwill and morale-boosting tour. Servicemen on at Eniwetok, Kwajalein, Saipan, Guam, the Philippines, Admiralty Islands, New Guinea and Peleliu would be able to enjoy games being played between teams from the “Third” and “Fifth” Fleets (see: 1945 3rd Fleet vs 5th Fleet – Pacific Tour).  With the main thrust of the Pacific offensive being fought in places such as Iwo Jima, Mize and his teammates found themselves on islands that still had an enemy presence. It was not uncommon for a Japanese sniper round to reach close proximity of a ball field.

In this Navy Department photo, Johnny Mize is seen in the back row, just to the left of center, posing among the members of both the Third and Fifth Fleet teams. This image was taken during the Tour of the Pacific in the Spring of 1945.

This very rare and rudimentary scorecard was distributed for a March, 1945 game that featured the the two teams (“3rd” and “5th Fleet”) from the Navy’s Pacific Tour. The game was played at Valor Field on the island of Peleliu.

Within a few weeks following the unconditional surrender of the Japanese, Mize was making his way back to the United States mainland and would be discharged from active duty in time to make an appearance as a spectator at the 1945 World Series between the Detroit Tigers and Chicago Cubs. It was noted by several reporters, ball players and coaches that Mize had dropped a significant amount of weight and appeared to be in top physical condition. Questioned about his health, Mize recounted his 1945 season of playing baseball five days a week for several months leading up to his separation from the Navy. Mize settled back into the routine of baseball with the Giants for the 1946 season, resuming his Hall of Fame career with a productive season despite his production drop from his 1942 season. In 1947, Mize led the National League in runs scored (137), runs batted in (138) and home runs (51), tying Pittsburgh’s Ralph Kiner. Despite Mize’s offensive prowess, his Giants finished in third place behind St. Louis and 13 games behind the National League Champion Brooklyn Dodgers.

Johnny Mize poses for a fan’s candid snapshot following a game in Hawaii in 1944.

While seated at my desk during a night shift at my last Navy duty station, I finished the letter that I wrote to the retired 80-year-old Hall of Famer, folded it and inserted the self-addressed and stamped envelope along with a few items for Mize to sign. I had no thoughts to the mortality of the immortal greats of the game until a few weeks later I learned that Johnny Mize had passed away and soon after, the envelope that I sent arrived in my mailbox was marked, “return to sender.”

Twenty five years later, I discovered a photo of Mize that, despite several flaws, caught my interest. The image was overexposed (either when the photo was captured or when it was printed in the darkroom) and has a discoloration blemish that is the result of improper darkroom chemical baths (the “stopbath” wasn’t fully removed in the rinse) leaving a residue that resulted in a dark patch on the surface of the print. The photo was captured by George Burke and might have been a cast-off print. Regardless of the condition, Mize, a prolific autograph signer, placed his mark on this vintage photo. It only took me a quarter of a century to finish what I set out to obtain.

Twenty five years after my attempt to get Mr. Mize’s autograph, I found this vintage photograph, clearly a cast-off of darkroom imperfection (underexposed and a dark spot on the top right is due to the chemicals not being fully washed at the time the print was developed), I was happy to add this signed print to my collection. That Mize is shown in his St. Louis uniform in his last season, there makes this much more palatable.

About the Johnny Mize artifacts
In addition to the signed photo, the Chevrons and Diamonds Collection has gained other Johnny Mize-related artifacts that include multiple WWII scorecards from games that he played while serving in the U.S. Navy. Also, we acquired three photos of Mize during his time in the Navy starting off with him being fitted for his service uniform (undress blues), a navy-veteran’s snapshot of the slugger in Hawaii in 1944 (see: Matching Faces to Names: Identifying Four 1945 Navy All-Stars) and an official Navy publicity photo that came from the estate of Philadelphia Athletics and WWII Navy infielder, Al Brancato. Two other photographs shown here (copies of the originals) were provided to Chevrons and Diamonds from our collecting colleague, Mark Southerland who obtained the original vintage prints (many of which are signed) as part of a substantial group of photographs from the Bill Dickey estate. Lastly, the photograph of the Navy team posed in front of the B-29 is a Navy Department publicity print.

*Mize’s Navy playing stats compiled and provided by Mr. Harrington “Kit” Crissey

More Than Just a Scorecard: Discovering the 6th Ferrying Group’s Team Roster

As I hinted in last week’s article, the influx of artifacts into the collection has been nothing short of overwhelming over the course of the last few months. The three uniforms (yes, there are two others that arrived previously and in addition to the WWII Coast Guard set) have yet to be fully documented and researched but they were on display at our public event last month. Less conspicuously unveiled and shown at the Armed Forces Recognition display were a handful of “new” World War II military baseball scorecards.

Aside from baseball’s fluidity in its continual change from batter-to-batter and inning-to-inning, teams are in a constant state of alteration as managers and general managers work tirelessly to field a roster of players that can match up well against their opponents on any given day. For the casual observer, a team manager merely drafts line-up cards, gives direction to the players and batters throughout the game as he maneuvers his team like chess-master, making substitutions and pitching changes to keep his players best aligned against his opponent. An outstanding manager not only addresses the needs of the present game but how his team will be matched up against his future opponents in the next week and even the next month. Major Leagues (and, to some extent, minor leagues) have been well documented as to the roster changes and game line-ups affording researches with an easy tool to follow a player’s professional career.  The same cannot be said about the game within the armed forces.

Roster management must have been a bit of a nightmare for military team managers during WWII as the needs of the military superseded the needs of a base or command team. At any given moment, a player could be transferred away to fill a need without notice to the team manager. Tracking players on these service teams’ rosters is a monumental task. Apart from the occasional box score contained within a base or command newspaper or the Sporting News or other civilian news source, rosters largely no longer exist for wartime baseball teams, leaving present-day researchers to piece them together.

Baseball scorecard collectors are off the mainstream of baseball memorabilia collectors though it seems that more people are discovering these historically affordable pieces of baseball history. A scorecard offers a snapshot in time with that day’s roster alignment for the two opposing teams. If a major or minor league game scorecard lacks a date, a researcher is able to use the rosters to reveal the approximate or even the precise date on which the game was played. Another draw for collectors is the aesthetics and artwork that is commonly present, especially with cards from the Golden Era of the game. Apart from the functional aspect (keeping score) the illustrations and photography that can be found adorning the covers and pages of these pieces can be bright and colorful while offering a window into the past.

With the influx of professional players into the armed forces and onto service team baseball rosters during WWII and the audiences that the teams played to and the overall purpose for many of the games (fund-raising), it became a necessity for organizers to produce and print scorecards for the attendees. In most instances, the venues for service games were relatively small which would limit the production of these pieces further reducing the chances of surviving copies.

Though I tried to land this 6th Ferrying Group vs the San Diego Padres scorecard from 1944, I was beaten (source: eBay image).

When a scorecard dating from June 26, 1944 for a fund-raiser (All-Pacific Recreation Fund) game hosted by the Pacific Coast League’s San Diego Padres pitted against the U.S. Army Air Forces (USAAF) 6th Ferrying Group of the Air Transportation Command (ATC), I was excited at the prospect of gaining some insight into the service leagues of Southern California. To date, I have been limited to piecing together rosters from scant story details in the Sporting News that are merely snippets of game narratives regarding the 6th Ferrying Group or any other team that played in their league, which drove me to pursue the online auction listing for the scorecard. Sadly, I was outbid and lost the auction.

Days later, another (different) 6th Ferrying Group scorecard was listed by the same seller. This version was from a game played between the ATC team and the San Bernardino All Stars and played at Perris Hill Park which was, no doubt, the home field of the All Stars (the ball park still stands and is the home field for the California State University, at San Bernardino baseball team and has been renamed Fiscalini Field). I quickly placed another sniped bid only to lose out a second time. Despite my discouragement, I ended up receiving the scorecard (albeit one in well-loved condition) as part of another item from the seller of the previous two scorecards.

Though it is a little damaged and worn, this scorecard is an invaluable piece of history. Perris Hill Ball Park still remains and today, serves as Cal State University, San Bernardino’s baseball stadium and has been renamed to Fiscalini Field.

I spent little time carefully removing the card from the package before I opened the the folded single sheet, moving directly to the rosters. Seeing the 6th Ferrying Group’s list of players, I quickly noted the men who had major league experience and began to work through the other names in search of professional ball-playing experience. Prior to owning this scorecard, the only 6th Ferrying Group team members that were discoverable were Chuck Stevens, Nanny Fernandez, Max West, Walter Loos, Harry Danning and Red Ruffing. Ten new names (seven with prior pro experience and one who went on to play professionally after the war). filled out the roster and opened the door to new research.

6th Ferrying Group Roster (major leaguers in bold):

Name Position Former Team
Art Lilly 2B Hollywood Stars
Chuck Stevens 1B Stl. Browns
Nanny Fernandez SS Boston Braves
Max  West CF Boston Braves
Harry Danning CF NY Giants
Ed Nulty LF Montreal Royals
Swede Jensen RF San Diego Padres
Walter Loos 3B Cincinnati
Red Ruffing P NY Yankees
Hub Kittle P Oakland Oaks
Ollie Olsen P San Diego padres
Roy Pitter P Newark Bears
Willie Werbowski P Semi-pro
Woody Bell OF San Antonio Missions
Ike Wise LF Semi-pro
Chas.  Mowrer LF Semi-pro

The 6th Ferrying Group team roster is a goldmine but the discovery isn’t limited to these 16 men.  The San Bernardino All Stars is nearly impossible to locate the commands from which the roster was constructed, leaving plenty of opportunity for research. Following a quick baseball search, I was successful in identifying eight of the players on the roster of which two played in the major leagues prior to their wartime service.

San Bernardino All Stars(major leaguers in bold):

Name Position Former Team
Don Rosselli 2B
Norman De Weese LF
Art Shoap 1B LA Angels
Frank Kerr C
Don Lang 3B Cincinnati
George Wiedemann RF
H. Munoz SS
Carl Sepulveda CF
Ed Chandler P Pocatello Cardinals
Walter Ripley P Boston Red Sox
Chas.  Harris P
Simon Martinez P Oakland
Bill Molyneaux OF Louisville Colonels
Lefty Watson OF
Doug Slamer LF
Clyde List C Brainerd Blues
Bill Sarni C LA Angels

In addition to researching the names on both rosters, pursuing a box score the amount of money that the was raised from the game would be a fitting punctuation to place upon this scorecard discovery.

References:

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