Category Archives: Scorecards
It probably shouldn’t seem strange to us after more than a decade dedicated to the pursuit of baseball militaria but 2020 has been a surprising year in terms of the scarcity and rarity of artifacts that have arrived at the Chevrons and Diamonds collection: treasures such as bats, gloves and baseballs that have left us stunned and four wartime flannel uniforms (all Navy) that began to trickle in early in the year. Keeping with that trend, another treasure that had previously seemed unobtainable for well over half a decade became available.
Collecting baseball militaria is a far different endeavor than what baseball or militaria collectors experience. We often find ourselves seeking the unknown as so much of what we uncover has not been documented in previous sales or auction listings. One such occurrence toward the end of 2019 was the acquisition of the only known example of a scorecard from the first game of the 1945 ETO World Series (see: Keeping Score at Nuremberg: A Rare 1945 GI World Series Scorecard). Though we had been in search of a scorecard or program from this series, exactly what was used to keep score was unknown.. When the ETO piece surfaced, there were several elements that helped us to quickly determine that it was from the series and that we had finally found the Nuremburg-used piece that we had been seeking. (We also discovered that there was another scorecard used for the games hosted at HQ Command’s Athletic Field, located at Reims in France.)
Ephemera such as scorecards, programs and scorebooks from service team games or fundraiser exhibitions (games played between service and professional teams) can pose quite a challenge to locate due to numerous factors. Some of the games were played in front of small audiences, which resulted in a small number of scorecards or programs being distributed among the attendees. Of those who kept their paper items after the game, how many survived travel, moves and the elements during the last 70+ years?
On October 3, 1943, a fundraising game was played at Stockton Field, which was home to the Army’s West Coast Training Center and the Air Corps Advanced Flying School, before a capacity crowd of 6,000. Similar to many other fund-raising service exhibition baseball games, this contest pitted the San Francisco Seals against an All-Star conglomeration of West Coast-based service personnel who were formerly professional ballplayers.
All eyes were focused upon the two stars, future Hall of Famers, who were playing for the service team.. Charlie Gehringer, the Detroit Tigers’ “Mechanical Man” second baseman who retired after a 19-year major league career, enlisted in the U.S. Navy and attended instructor’s school at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill in the Navy Pre-Flight program. After graduating from the program, Lieutenant Gehringer was assigned as an instructor at the Navy Pre-Flight School, St. Mary’s College in Moraga, California, and was named the head coach (he also played) of the school’s baseball team. During the 1943 season, Gehringer’s club posted a 24-5 record, including defeats handed to San Francisco and Oakland of the Pacific Coast League as well as Stanford and University of California, and claimed the All-Service League’s championship (see: Discovering New Research Avenues: SABR and The U.S. Navy Pre-flight School at St. Mary’s). The other star under the spotlight, Joe DiMaggio, entered the U.S. Army Air Forces on February 17, 1943, despite his 3A draft deferment status, just as his Yankee teammates were starting spring training. Recognizing the public attention that DiMaggio would bring to fund raising efforts, the USAAF leadership assigned him to the Santa Ana Army Air Base (SAAAB) in Southern California following basic training at Fort Ord, CA, which was the headquarters for the West Coast Army Air Corps Training Command Center. The Yankee Clipper’s new squad had modest success. The Rosebel Plumbers, a civilian industrial league club, and the 6th Ferrying Group team bested the SAAAB nine in 1943 league play, despite DiMaggio’s 20-game hitting streak.
With combat in the Pacific raging on and around the Solomon Islands ashore, on the seas and in the air, the physical toll on service members required more medical care facilities on the West Coast. Three months after Pearl Harbor, the Army Corps of Engineers purchased acreage from Stanislaus County and immediately began construction on a 2,500-bed facility. One year after the initial land acquisition, the new Army medical facility, Hammond General Hospital, was designated as one of only five thoracic surgical centers on the West Coast and could treat the most severe combat traumas. When combat wounded arrived at Hammond, it was clear for most of them due to the severity of their injuries that the treatment they received was for stabilization and for their return to society. Troops would receive neurological care, general and orthopedic surgery, neurosurgery and psychiatry as well as rehabilitation during their stay at Hammond.
Recreation at Hammond General Hospital was needed for patients and staff alike. Baseball was a universal activity that could be incorporated into the rehabilitation process for recovering wounded troops (Phil Rizzuto formed a league for wounded Marines and Sailors recovering in Brisbane, Australia, in 1944. See: Serving Behind the Scenes, Rizzuto Shared His Heart for the Game). With the regular California service league play completed in September, the Hammond charity game was scheduled for Sunday, October 3, allowing time for the teams to be assembled. The game was promoted as a fund raiser “for the benefit of wounded veterans at Hammond General Hospital” (“Joe DiMaggio Will Be Feature of Game” – The Spokesman Review, September 28, 1943) in West Coast newspapers, with DiMaggio as the “main attraction.”
Several years ago, a program was listed at auction showing only the cover of a program from the charity game played on October 3, 1943, between a “Service All-Stars” team and the San Francisco Seals. The price was considerably steep ($299.00) for the piece and yet the listing was scant in detail and only mentioned Joe DiMaggio as one of the players on the service team. Considering the price and the lack of detail, we decided not to pursue the piece. As we researched the game with hopes of finding another available copy of the program, we discovered that the Baseball Hall of Fame’s museum also had a copy of the program in their archives (see: Baseball Enlists: Uncle Sam’s Teams). Their site, as with the auction listing, showed only the cover and mentioned an additional star player on the service team.
The program and scorecard consists of front and back covers with six interior pages. Constructed from a sheet of cardstock (covers) and lightweight paper (interior pages), the piece succinctly describes the reason for the game and provides the lineups for each team on separate pages, along with scoring grids. Advertising occupies the two interior pages opposite the front and back covers and the centerfold page features head shots of DiMaggio and Gehringer.
“The U.S. Army Air Forces and Stockton Field take this opportunity to express their appreciation to the San Francisco Seals, 1943 Pacific Coast League baseball champions, for their cooperation in making today’s game possible.
Victors over Portland and Seattle in successive Shaughnessy playoffs, the Seals come here today to meet one of the best all-service nines assembled in the West to play in a benefit game dedicated to a great cause – the athletic and recreation fund of the Hammond General Hospital at Modesto. Our thanks, therefore, also are extended to the commanding officers of the various army posts who released their all-star players to make this contest a reality.
Today’s tilt not only helps a worthy cause but also marks the realization of every baseball fan’s dream – a game between two great teams. Stockton is fortunate to play host to such an outstanding assembly of baseball greats.”
Despite his central billing in the game’s promotion, DiMaggio’s bat was not a factor. In his first appearance, the Yankee Clipper reached on an error and his three subsequent at-bats resulted in outs. Gehringer was 1-for-4 with a single in the third inning. The offensive star for the service team was catcher Ray Lamanno with a 3-for-4 showing (two doubles and a single). Former San Francisco Seals first baseman Ferris Fain was the only other service member with a multiple-hit game (two singles). DiMaggio did display his defensive skills with four putouts from center field. On the mound for the Service All-Stars were Rinaldo “Rugger” Ardizoia and Tony Freitas (Athletics, Reds), both of whom hailed from Northern California.
Service All-Stars Roster (bold names indicate former major league experience):
|USAAF||McClellan Field Commanders||Rugger Ardizoia||P||Yankees|
|USAAF||McClellan Field Commanders||Bob Dillinger||2B||Toledo (AA)|
|USAAF||Santa Ana Army Air Base||Joe DiMaggio||CF||Yankees|
|USAAF||McClellan Field Commanders||Ferris Fain||1B||San Francisco Seals (PCL)|
|USAAF||Mather Field Fliers||Tony Freitas||P||Sacramento Solons (PCL)|
|Navy||Navy Pre-Flight St. Mary’s Air Devils||Charlie Gehringer||2B||Tigers|
|USAAF||Hammer Field||Harry Goorabian||SS||San Francisco Seals (PCL)|
|USAAF||McClellan Field Commanders||Walter Judnich||RF||Browns|
|Navy||Naval Air Station Livermore||Ray Lamanno||C||Reds|
|USAAF||McClellan Field Commanders||Dario Lodigiani||3B||White Sox|
|USAAF||Mather Field Fliers||Joe Marty||LF||Phillies|
|USAAF||McClellan Field Commanders||Mike McCormick||RF||Reds|
|USAAF||Stockton Air Base||Hal Quick||LF||Williamsport Grays (EL)|
|Navy||Navy Pre-Flight St. Mary’s Air Devils||Bill Rigney||SS||Oakland Oaks (PCL)|
Though the scorecard lists the opponents as the San Francisco Seals, the actual team was a conglomeration of players from the Pacific Coast League and from California. The “Seals” team featured five former major leaguers (pitchers Tom Seats and Bob Joyce, catchers Joe Sprinz and Bruce Ogrodowski and left fielder Hank Steinbacher) who were on the Seals’ 1943 roster along with two others. Former Athletics hurler Joyce went the distance on the mound in the losing effort, surrendering six runs. Sprinz, formerly with the Cleveland Indians, served as Joyce’s receiver. Anderson was the leading batsman for the so-called Seals with three hits and centerfielder Vias stroked a pair of singles, though only two runs were plated in the loss to the service team.
“San Francisco Seals” (West Coast All-Stars) Roster:
|Willis Enos||LF||San Francisco (PCL)|
|Bob Joyce||P||San Francisco (PCL)|
|Bruce Ogrodowski||C||San Francisco (PCL)|
|Tom Seats||P||San Francisco (PCL)|
|Joe Sprinz||C||San Francisco (PCL)|
|Hank Steinbacher||LF||San Francisco (PCL)|
|Bill Werle||P||San Francisco (PCL)|
|Manny Vias||CF||Sacramento (PCL)|
|Carl Anderson||2B||Portland (PCL)|
|Harry Clements||SS||Hollywood (PCL)|
|Steve Barath||CF||Louisville (AA)|
Scorecards from service team games are scarce and pose considerable challenges to locate, let alone acquire. The Hammond General Hospital charity game program eluded our reach until a much more reasonably priced copy surfaced a few weeks ago at auction. Our winning bid secured the piece at a fraction of the aforementioned copy and after years of waiting, we finally landed our own copy. Aside from rust stains surrounding the two staples that secure the lightweight internal pages to the cover, the condition of our artifact is excellent, with no dog-eared pages or creases.
Until we saw the initial copy of this scorecard, we had no idea that it existed. Not knowing what to look for poses perhaps the most significant challenge in collecting baseball militaria. Once we knew about the Hammond piece, it took several years to find one within our reach.
Independence Day has been recognized as a somber and celebratory event since the letter of grievances (addressed to England’s King), punctuated by a Declaration of Independence, was distributed and disseminated throughout the new nation.
“We, therefore, the Representatives of the united States of America, in General Congress, Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the Name, and by Authority of the good People of these Colonies, solemnly publish and declare, That these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be Free and Independent States; that they are Absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved; and that as Free and Independent States, they have full Power to levy War, conclude Peace, contract Alliances, establish Commerce, and to do all other Acts and Things which Independent States may of right do. And for the support of this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes and our sacred Honor.”
July 4th celebrations have many traditions including national patriotic displays, the decorating of public buildings, streets and homes, parades and firework displays in every community. Another public celebration that has been part of the national fabric is the “national pastime”- baseball. Games have been played in sandlots, playgrounds, and minor and major league parks since the game’s inception in the early nineteenth century. It has been played on ice fields, desert sands, jungles and volcanic islands within earshot of small arms and artillery fire. As with Independence Day celebrations, nothing has stopped the game from moving onward.
Baseball has been a vehicle for social progression and for social change. Despite its dark history of systemic oppression (the intentional omission of an entire people), the game has also been a vehicle for righting wrongs as conscious people, such as Morrie Arnovich (see: Morrie Arnovich: Breaking Ground for Branch Rickey’s Bold Move) and Branch Rickey, took moral stands. Aside from social causes, the game has been in the forefront of national health issues, becoming a voice in the fight against polio and other diseases and physical ailments. Beginning in the 1950s, the game’s leadership changed the direction of National Baseball Day (typically held on June 26th), which was formerly used to promote baseball to America’s youth at the end of World War II.
“The National Association of Professional Baseball Clubs, the official name of the minor leagues’ organization, will join the majors and amateur baseball organizations in the drive against polio, arthritis and birth defects on National Baseball Day, July 4. George Trautman, president of the National Association, has urged all teams to aid in making the day a success.” NY Daily News, 21 June 1959
The game has been a vehicle for raising funds for many causes. During World War II, countless exhibition games were staged domestically and in the Hawaiian Islands to raise funds to provide GIs with athletic equipment and to finance the Army and Navy Relief Societies. Until a recent discovery and acquisition of a piece of Australian ephemera, the extent of the reach of charitable baseball games was unknown to us.
Baseball’s history in Australia is perhaps the deepest beyond the shores of the North American continent, with the first recorded game being played on February 28, 1857, dating the game down under to only a few decades short of its establishment within the United States. The exchange of baseball between the United States and Australia has been occurring since then with subsequent tours by teams from both nations since the latter decades of the 19th Century and the early 20th (see Australian Baseball: A Brief History by Major League Baseball historian, John Thorn).
Without any hesitation (or pre-purchase due diligence, for that matter), we purchased a program that was listed in an online auction. The photos in the listing showed a two-color baseball program from Victoria, Australia for a game played between a local baseball club and a U.S. Navy team under the auspices of an “International Base Ball Match.” A quick check of the printed rosters inside showed names of Navy players who were, by all accounts, solely servicemen with no professional baseball experience. This decision to purchase was purely for the Naval historical aspect and due to the beautiful cover artwork.
The event was hosted at the St. Kilda Cricket Ground (also known as the Junction Oval) on April 8 but nowhere in the program was a year specified. Ahead of the main event, there were women’s softball-centric field games (fungo batting, base running and long throw), a women’s softball game (local Australian teams), baseball field games and the baseball game itself. The program also included a simplified explanation of baseball rules (for the local newcomers to the game) and a statement of the event’s purpose (raising money for Prince Henry’s Hospital Sportsmen’s Ward Fund for the expansion of a Melbourne hospital.)
With the program in hand, we endeavored to uncover any further details about the game (such as the outcome). A cursory internet search returned an immediate result from the collection of the National Baseball Hall of Fame Museum (Cooperstown, New York). Listed among the Hall of Fame’s World War II artifacts is a poster from the April 8 event with hand-inscribed notes providing the year (1945) and the baseball game’s score (the Navy defeated Victoria, 3-0).
The information from the Cooperstown artifact provided additional details for a more specific search. A recap of the game, published in Melbourne’s The Age, revealed that the game was even closer than the three-run shutout indicated. The Navy’s starting pitcher, Pat Patterson (shown on the program’s lineup page as the Navy’s centerfielder) held Victoria scoreless but he was touched for seven hits scattered throughout the seven-inning contest. The bat of Navy’s Joe Coyne accounted for all three of the game’s runs while Jim Robey, Henry Marshott and Patterson all reached base and contributed to the victor’s offensive output. Remarkably, spectator turnout for “International Baseball Day” accounted for 12,000 clicks of the St’ Kildare’s Cricket Ground gate, contributing 200 pounds to the Prince Henry Hospital Sportsmen’s Ward Fund.
US Navy Team (reserves in italics)
|G. Tippett||P||North Melbourne|
|R. Howard||C||South Melbourne|
|C. Ingram||CF||St. Kilda|
|E. Lynott||OF||St. Kilda|
Searching dates prior to April, 1945 revealed no preceding International Baseball Day recognition, nor are there references following the Navy versus Victoria event, leading to the conclusion that this was an unrelated, single instance with no correlation to the aforementioned National Baseball Day.
In the years after World War II, Baseball Day was moved ahead to coincide with Independence Day since games were already traditionally played on July fourth. Even during the War, service teams participated in larger Independence Day baseball events (see: Independence Day Baseball Program, 1943 Schofield Barracks). Teams began to promote patriotic events, such as capping off an evening game with a fireworks show, which tended to draw larger audiences. The increased draw made the Independence Day games a perfect opportunity for fund-raising opportunities.
On this Independence Day anniversary, July 4, 2020, our nation is facing an internal (social) struggle and a health scare that threatens to all but overshadow our most sacred of national holidays. Amid many historical national crises such as a bloody civil war and two global world wars, the anniversary of Independence Day has been recognized with proper ceremony and celebration due to its national importance. However, in 2020, the panic and fear surrounding the current viral outbreak has stirred politicians to reprioritize the national holiday to a mere afterthought. Across the United States, traditional festivities and ceremonies have been cancelled or “postponed.” Major League Baseball announced on June 30, the full cancellation of the 2020 minor league baseball season, leaving the future state of the minors very much in question.
Through this simple, 75-year-old program from a time when the future of the world and mankind was very much in question, we can see that baseball provides a solid reminder that life will go on and that baseball always finds a way to continue.
For More on Wartime Baseball Down Under, See:
In the decade that we have been researching artifacts and players, we have encountered the occasional baseball fan bearing a measure of bitterness and animosity towards the men who played baseball on service teams during World War II. While it certainly is understandable when comparisons are made with players such a s Warren Spahn or Gil Hodges participated in and witnessed some of the most horrific battles of the war. It is far too easy to look at the stories surrounding players like Joe DiMaggio or Ted Williams who seemingly entered the war with significant hesitation that appeared to some to be evasiveness when other ballplayers such as Bob Feller, Hank Greenberg, Sam Chapman and Al Brancato volunteered days after the Pearl Harbor attack. Perhaps with perspective and insight into the wartime service of these professional ballplayers and the positive impact they had on their fellow servicemen, that bitterness may lessen.
The very first Norfolk Naval Training Station artifact that landed within the Chevrons and Diamonds collection was a magnificent team photograph of the 1943 Bluejackets. The condition of the vintage type-1 photograph is less than desirable, and the image was a bit overexposed. Regardless of these detractors, the faces of each player are clearly identifiable in the high-resolution scan that we made from the photo. Soon after the acquisition of the photograph, we sourced a scorecard from the first games at Norfolk’s McClure Field against the Washington Senators (see: Discovering the Norfolk Naval Training Station Bluejackets Through Two Scarce Artifacts).
One of the featured players of the Norfolk team was already a budding star in his two-year major league career with 10 games in two trips to the World Series (1941 and ‘42) along with a championship ring. Phillip Francis “Scooter” Rizzuto played his last professional game on October 5, 1942, a loss to the St. Louis Cardinals in the Fall Classic. Two days later, “Scooter” was in Norfolk for boot camp having reported for duty in the U.S. Navy on October 7, 1942. By the spring of 1943, the former Yankee shortstop was filling the same position on Bosun Gary Bodie’s Norfolk Naval Training Station Bluejackets.
With many of the stories of baseball players finding their way onto service team rosters versus serving alongside other Americans in conventional armed forces roles (including combat), there are those who view these professionals with disdain seeing men who found a path to remain outside of harm’s way. Even today, there are those detractors who view these men with great animosity. Perhaps it is safe to make such an assumption that there were at least a few baseball players who could be judged in this manner, however it is far too simplistic and considerably easy to disregard what any of these men thought, felt or actually did, in addition to simply playing baseball. One must consider the impact that the games had on fellow servicemen. To stand shoulder to shoulder with the likes of Pee Wee Reese, Bob Feller, Joe DiMaggio or any of the hundreds who served and played the game to uplift the GIs and give them respite and a taste of home.
Newspaper Enterprise Association (NEA) writer, Harry Grayson penned a rather sarcastic commentary (published in syndicated newspapers in mid-October across the U.S.) regarding Cardinals’ pitcher, Murry Dickson being granted a 10-day furlough (from his Seventh Service Command duties) in order to participate in the 1943 World Series versus the Yankees. However, the same opportunity was not afforded to Johnny Beazley, Howie Pollet or Enos Slaughter who were also serving on active duty. What made the inconsistency stand out more, according to Grayson was that Phil Rizzuto was on furlough in New York (to spend time at home before being sent for duty in the South Pacific) and played in a series with the legendary semi-professional Brooklyn Bushwicks as they took on the New London (Connecticut) Coast Guardsmen on September 26. Rizzuto, wearing his Navy service dress blues, was joined by airman (and former Cardinals center fielder) Terry Moore at Yankee Stadium (also dressed in his service uniform). The author mentioned Major League Baseball Commissioner Landis’ prior refusal to accommodate Navy Lieutenant Larry French’s request to pitch for his former club, the Brooklyn Dodgers, while he was stationed at the nearby Navy Yard, illustrating further contradiction. However, Grayson’s punctuating closing sentence that ballplayers, who had been scheduled for an exhibition tour of the Pacific, were left without excuses for duty (other than baseball).
Rizzuto’s time at Norfolk didn’t conclude with the baseballs season as he spent the winter months on the court with the NTS basketball team along with former Dodgers shortstop, Harold “Pee Wee” Reese. By early March 1944, Bosun Bodie was left to rebuild his baseball club due to the departure of Benny McCoy, Charlie Wagner, Tom Earley, Vinnie Smith, Don Padgett, Dom DiMaggio and Phil Rizzuto for new duty assignments. Scooter, Vinnie Smith and DiMaggio landed in San Francisco Bay Area Sea Bees base known as Camp Showmaker (located near present-day Pleasanton). While further assignment, Dom DiMaggio and Rizzuto were added to the Shoemaker baseball team, the Fleet City Bluejackets. DiMaggio was handed the managerial reins to the club that also included Hank Feimster (former Red Sox pitcher) and former Cincinnati Reds outfielder, Hub Walker. the rand faced the Pacific Coast League San Francisco Seals on April 4 for an exhibition game.
Since late January 1942, the Island of New Guinea was one of the Japanese Empire’s strategic targets with its natural resources and more importantly, its proximity to the Australian continent. With their invasion of Salamaua–Lae, the Japanese began to take a foothold on the island. By the time that Rizzuto and his former Norfolk Teammate, Don Padgett arrived on the Island in the spring of 1944, the Allied forces were amid the Reckless and Persecution operations against the Japanese. During his time in New Guinea, Rizzuto contracted malaria and suffered with a severe bout of shingles requiring his removal to U.S. Navy Fleet Hospital 109, located at Camp Hill, Brisbane, Australia. One serviceman wrote of Rizzuto’s time at the hospital and how he would interact with the American wounded mentioning (Ruby’s Report, The Courier-Journal, Louisville, Kentucky, July 13, 1944) that Phil would do “everything to keep the patients’ minds off the war. Wrote the young sailor from Kentucky, “I have seen him sit down and answer questions by the hour and never once try to avoid a session of baseball grilling as only a bunch of hospital patients can put on.”
Once he recovered from his ailments, Rizzuto took on duties as an athletic instructor, managing baseball service league while down under. “You’d be surprised how much sport can do to help the men who have just returned from battle.” the shortstop mentioned in an interview with sportswriter, Blues Romeo. Rizzuto’s primary duty in Australia was to organize games and tournaments for the battle-wounded sailors and Marines. “The physically handicapped boys in the hospital got together and formed athletic teams, “said Rizzuto. “They call it the ‘Stumpy Club.’ It’s made up of men who lost legs and arms in battle.” For those critical of baseball players who “got a free pass” from the war might consider the positive impact that many of the former professionals had on their peers. “Despite their handicaps, the men put everything they have into the game.” Rizzuto told the reporter. “At first it’s not a pleasant sight, watching so many guys with crutches, but that’s the kind of stuff that keeps their mind at ease.” the shortstop mentioned. “What guts those guys have!”
Joining Rizzuto in Brisbane were fellow major leaguers, Don Padgett, Dom DiMaggio, Charlie Wagner, Benny McCoy along with a handful of minor leaguers.
Navy leadership had no intentions of losing bragging rights to the Army heading into the Service World Series after watching the heavily stacked Seventh Army Air Force team dominate the 1944 league play on Oahu. While the 7th was busy handling the competition and planning for the fall series, the Navy began assembling top major and minor league talent from the continent and the Pacific Theater.
Rizzuto and DiMaggio were recalled from Australia in September to Oahu in anticipation of the Service World Series (September 22 through October 15, 1944. Ahead of the series, Navy All-Stars manager, Lieutenant Bill Dickey plugged both Dom and Phil into their normal positions (center field and shortstop, respectively) for a Friday night (September 15) exhibition game against the Pearl Harbor Submarine Base Dolphins at Weaver Field (the Navy All-Stars won, 7-4). Two days later, DiMaggio and Rizzuto switched teams as the Pearl Harbor Submarine Base Dolphins for a regular season game against the Hawaii Leagues champion 7th Army Air Forces squad on Sunday, September 17.
While the Army roster consisted of the 7th AAF team (augmented with players from other Hawaiian base tames) For the series, the Navy fielded a team of All-Stars that would be the envy of either major league. To maximize the top-tier talent, some players were re-positioned from their normal spots on the diamond. Rizzuto was moved to the “hot corner” to allow for Pee Wee Reese to play at short.
1944 Hawaii Service World Series Results:
- September 22 – Furlong Field, Hickam (Navy, 5-0)
- September 23 – Furlong Field (Navy, 8-0)
- September 25 – Schofield Barracks (Navy, 4-3)
- September 26 – Kaneohe Bay NAS (Navy, 10-5)
- September 28 – Furlong Field (Navy, 12-2)
- September 30 – Furlong Field (Navy, 6-4)
- October 1 – Furlong Field (Army, 5-3)
- October 4 – Maui (Navy 11-0)
- October 5 – Maui (Army 6-5)
- October 6 – Hoolulu Park, Hilo (Tie, 6-6)
- October 15 – Kukuiolono Park (Navy, 6-5)
With the Army All-Stars defeated handily in the Service World Series, Rizzuto returned to Brisbane and resumed his duties with the service baseball leagues and the “Stumpy Club.”
Following the completion of his duties in Brisbane, Rizzuto was transferred back to New Guinea to the small port town of Finschhafen (which was the site of a 1943 Allied offensive led by Australian forces) that ultimately secured the town and the harbor. Rizzuto was subsequently assigned to the Navy cargo ship, USS Triangulum (AK-102) serving once again on one of the shipboard Oerlikon 20-millimeter cannons anti-aircraft gun mounts as the vessel ferried supplies within the region. As the Triangulum was constantly steaming to keep the troops supplied in the surrounding Bismark and Western Solomon Islands, General MacArthur and the American forces were keeping his promise to return to the Philippines and dislodge the Japanese forces that had been in the Island territory since December of 1941.
By January of 1945, Rizzuto was serving on the Philippine Island of Samar (three months earlier, the Japanese Navy was dealt a deadly blow by the small destroyers and destroyer escorts of Taffy 3 just off the island’s coast) and remained in the region until he was returned to California by the middle of October. Rizzuto was discharge on October 28, 1945 and returned to the Yankees for training camp the following spring having been tempted by a lucrative contract and incentives to play in Mexico.
Whether it was the thousands of cheering service personnel attending the games in which Rizzuto played or his hands-on service rendered to the recuperating combat wounded in Australia, he served in ways that are entirely ignored by critics of wartime service team baseball.
- O Holy Cow!: The Selected Verse of Phil Rizzuto, by Phil Rizzuto
- Scooter: The Biography of Phil Rizzuto, by Carlo DeVito
- The October Twelve: Five Years of Yankee Glory 1949-1953, by Phil Rizzuto and Tom Horton
- The Phil Rizzuto story, by Milton J Shapiro
- The Scooter: The Phil Rizzuto Story, by Gene Schoor
3: something that moves swiftly: such as
a: a fast sailing ship
especially: one with long slender lines, an overhanging bow, tall masts, and a large sail area
During the industrialization in the United States’ infancy, the expansion of trade along with the need for more rapid commerce pushed sailing and ship design technology leading to the development of swift merchant sailing ships. Predominantly built in British and American shipyards, the wooden clipper ships featured a sleek hull with a narrow beam with three large masts (with square sails and rigging). These ships were built for speedy trans-ocean transits with reduced cargo capacities (from their predecessors) with the intention taking goods to market faster. Clipper ships’ heyday spanned from the decade preceding the American Civil War and waned as the 1860s came to a close.
Six decades after the Clipper ships were outmoded by steel-hulls and the emergence of steam power, technology and innovation again were brought to bear for rapid trans-Pacific transit of people and cargo. Pan American Airlines sent their requirements for a flying boat out for bid in the mid-1930s with the Boeing Aircraft Company’s proposal being selected in July of 1936. In less than two years, the first Boeing 314 Clipper was test-flown from Seattle’s Elliot Bay in June of 1939. In the previous century, the clipper ships featured massive sail –area to give the vessels incredibly large surface areas to harness the wind to propel them through the water fast. The Boeing 314 Clipper’s design incorporated the enormous wing from the XB-15 that provided the ship with the lift and efficiency required for the ranges the aircraft would be routinely flying. The first commercial flight of the Boeing Clipper took place in February of 1939 with a six-day flight from San Francisco to Hong Kong.
The Clipper flying boats became an iconic, luxurious mode of travel between the continent and the Hawaiian Islands in their brief, three-year career in commercial air transportation until the Japanese attack on the island of Oahu. Naval aviation was rapidly evolving and developing in the decade leading up to WWII with the expansion of seaplane and flying boat fleets. One of the largest air bases in the Navy was Naval Air Station (NAS) Kaneohe Bay, located at the foot of the Mokapu Peninsula.
By December 7, 1941, NAS Kaneohe Bay had only existed as a naval air station since the Navy acquired the 32- acre Fort Kuwa’aohe Military Reservation in 1940. In addition to the development of the large runways, taxiways and hangar facilities constructed, the Navy created substantial ramps on the base’s Kaneohe Bay shoreline to accommodate the massive sea plane facility that the naval air station became known for. As the Japanese attacked their principal objectives at Pearl Harbor, secondary targets such as Kaneohe Bay were also in their sights. Spread around the ramps, moored in the water as well as in near the hangars were 33 Catalina PBY flying boats. Twenty-seven of the massive aircraft were destroyed with the remaining survivors sustaining damage.
Designated as the C-98, Pan Am’s fleet of Boeing 314 Clippers were purchased by the War Department and pressed into service as the airline’s experienced civilian crew continued to fly the aircraft. The Clippers continued to fly Pacific routes ferrying military personnel and cargo with Oahu serving as a routine destination from the mainland. The large protected harbor of Kaneohe Bay already serving as an ideal airport for the Navy’s Catalina flying boats, NAS Kaneohe would seem to be an ideal base of operations for the C-98 Clippers.
Early into our exploration into baseball militaria, NAS Kaneohe Bay frequently surfaced as we researched various service team ballplayers starting with the 1943 season. Before the arrival of former professional ballplayers (who joined the Navy in the months following the December 7, 1941 sneak-attack), sailors stationed at naval air station at Kaneohe routinely participated in sports such as basketball, football and baseball as the base teams competed in area leagues.
Consistent Chevrons and Diamonds readers will note previous articles that reference the Kaneohe baseball team that featured some well-known former professional players who made their way from the mainland to Oahu and were assigned to the Naval Air Station. With the likes of Johnny Mize (see: Johnny “Big Jawn” Mize, WWII Service and His Elusive Signature) and Marv Felderman (see: A Full Career Behind the Plate with Just Six Major League At-Bats) serving on the 1944 team, the Klippers of Kaneohe fielded a highly competitive team. The baseball team, named in honor of the swift and sleek nineteenth-century sailing ship and the luxurious and far-reaching Boeing 314 flying boat, adopted the altered (spelled with a “K” for an alliterative connection to the bay) name from the football squad. The Kaneohe Klippers name first appeared in print in the Honolulu Advertiser in the fall of 1942.
During the process of researching in support of our aforementioned Marvin Felderman article, a September 8, 1945 Honolulu Advertiser article (penned by W. Austin Joyce) surfaced that made reference to the Klippers’ final game of the season.
“Klipper Day was held for 12,500 fans at Klipper Diamond to honor the Kaneohe Klippers on Sunday, September 16 for the last game of the season. Marv Felderman of the Chicago Cubs said during an interview on the field, “This reminds me of Ebbets Field in Brooklyn.” The game between the Honolulu Crossroaders and Klippers was a 7-3 victory by Kaneohe. John Berry drove a ball over the left field fence in the fourth followed by one by manager and pitcher, Joe Gonzales.” – Honolulu Advertiser, September 18, 1945
The Honolulu advertiser article spotlighted the pre-game festivities which included a skills competition dubbed a, “Sports-Go-Bang” contest of four separate skills events that pit three players from each team to compete and entertain the large crowd in attendance.
- Fungo Hitting – Dale Jones (Philadelphia Phillies) beat out Ned Harris (Detroit Tigers), Dee Miles (Athletics), Sherry Robertson (Senators) and outslugged four other long distance hitters.
- Distance Throwing – Steve Tramback (Cubs) – secured the win with a 400-foout toss
- Base Running – Bob Usher (Reds) and Dale Jones (Phillies) tied for the win in the base-running event covering the bases in 15 seconds.
- Accuracy Throwing – Dick West (Reds) and Gabe Sady threw the ball into a barrel at second base from the plate. Each winner secured a $25 war bond.
The Klippers’ last game of the season (and of the war) was a victory for the Kaneohe nine as the Honolulu Crossroaders, piloted by former University of California Bears pitcher, Mike Koll, were defeated, 7-3. In the game within the game, the Kaneohe offense was bolstered by back-to-back fourth inning homeruns by
first-sacker John Berry and manager and pitcher, Joe Gonzales; each earned $25 war bonds for long-ball achievements.
Weeks after publishing the Marvin Felderman article, a fantastic piece of military baseball ephemera surfaced on the market that caught our attention due to the very specific mention of “Klipper Day” on the cover. The program booklet and scorecard that was listed was an over-sized, fourteen-page piece and beautifully adorned with photographs and details that mirrored the Honolulu Advertiser story. This Klipper Day scorecard was very obviously created and handed out to the fans in attendance at Naval Air Station Kaneohe Bay for the game.
Though most of the professional baseball players returned to their pre-war lives following their service in the Navy and on the Naval Air Station Kaneohe Bay roster effectively ending the high level of play that the local fans were accustomed to, the Klippers nine returned to the diamond in the 1946 season fielding players from the ranks of ordinary sailors. Unlike the professional ballplayers, the Boeing 314 Clippers did not return to their pre-war duties as Pan American moved on from the flying boats in favor of more efficient long-range aircraft. The Boeing 314s were parked in San Diego where they deteriorated for several years before being sold for scrap.
Klipper Day marked the end of an era for the Klippers of Kaneohe Bay but also coincided with the end of the season of the team’s namesake, the Boeing 314 Clippers, however without fanfare.
Our mission to capture and preserve military baseball artifacts has directed the pursuit of materials in the form of printed matter that provides documentation of specific leagues, teams and even games that were played that included at least one service team. Ephemera such as game programs, scorebooks an scorecards provides incredible details such as roster configurations and player data (age, hometown, previous professional teams, etc.) which serves to provide researchers with invaluable historical data. With the Chevrons and Diamonds Library of Military Baseball Scorecards, Score-books and Game Programs, not only are we showcasing these historical treasures but also providing our collector colleagues and other researchers with a searchable online resource.
Our library predominantly consists of artifacts that we have curated for our own collection however, when we find pieces that we ultimately fail to secure, we strive to capture the images and data contained within each piece that slips through our hands. The current count of scorecards, programs and scorebooks displayed within our archive has been stalled at 20 pieces (15 of which are part of the Chevrons and Diamonds collection) for nearly a year. However, that tally does not reflect the actual number of pieces that have been acquired in the last 12 months. The reason for the lack of attention afforded to our online archive is merely a matter of prioritization of our research and writing projects in conjunction with priorities outside of the realm of baseball militaria.
Our online archive attracts a fair amount of readership traffic proving that this undertaking provides a measure of benefit for our intended audiences. Aside from measuring visitor statistical data pertaining to this online archive of ephemera treasures, we have received feedback from colleagues that have eagerly provided us with scans and images of pieces within their own collections to add to the list in order to enhance the library. In the past few years since we provided this reader-submission functionality, we have received a few additions to our library. Sadly, not everything that was sent to us has yet been added to the library.
Ephemera collectors tend to be a bit of a rarity within the larger arena baseball memorabilia. Rarer still are those collectors who seek out historical paper from military or service games. When a colleague reached out to us regarding his collection of scorecards, programs and scorebooks from games featuring the wartime Great Lakes Naval Training Station ball teams, we were thrilled, to say the least, with the prospect of adding his incredible collection to our online resource.
One could assert that of the service teams that played ball during World War II, two of the best (if not THE best) teams were from the Navy’s largest recruit training stations. On the Atlantic coast, the Norfolk (Virginia) Naval Training Station Bluejackets team was the product of Captain Henry McClure and Chief Bosun Gary Bodie and in the Midwest, another Bluejackets team based at the Great Lakes Naval Training Station (located north of Chicago, Illinois on the western shores of Lake Michigan) was managed by former Philadelphia Athletics and Detroit Tigers great, Lieutenant Commander Mickey Cochrane. During Cochrane’s leadership of the Great Lakes team from 1942 through 1944, the team amassed a combined record of 163 wins against 26 losses (and one tie) against competition ranging from major and minor league clubs, other service teams and industrial teams. Cochrane would reach out to ballplayers (who had not yet been drafted or enlisted for wartime service) and recruit them to join the Navy with the notion that they would play baseball for his team for the season.
Chuck Ailsworth, a collector from Michigan, offered to provide Chevrons and Diamonds with scans of his collection of seven Great Lakes Naval Training Station scorecards (three from the 1942 season, one from 1943 and three from 1944) along with his assortment of (George Brace/George Burke) photographs of various team personalities and were delighted to accept. In discussing Mr. Ailsworth’s interest with the Great Lakes baseball club, he explained that is inspiration stems from his father’s Korean War-era service, predominantly spent at the home of Mickey Cochrane’s Bluejackets, a few years removed from the end of WWII. Mr. Ailsworth explained, “Great Lakes during Korea was not the same as during WWII,” he wrote. “But I still learned a bit about the team from my dad and then learned on my own that they may have been the best team in baseball during most of the war.” Remarking about the dominance of Cochrane’s teams during the war, Chuck stated, “That always fascinated me, the idea that a bunch of GIs could beat the best MLB had to offer.” However, history shows that Cochrane’s teams’ rosters were populated by seasoned ballplayers from the highest levels of the professional game.
- July 2, 1942 Great Lakes vs Chanute Field at Comiskey Field
- August 14, 1942 Great Lakes vs Coffeyville Ban Johnson Refiners
- August 16, 1942 Great Lakes vs Beloit Booster AC
- June 24, 1944 Great Lakes vs the Western Michigan All-Stars, Grand Rapids, MI
- August 4, 1944 Great Lakes vs Coca-Cola Bottling of Springfield, OH
- 1944 Great Lakes vs UAW Local 72, Kenosha, WI
For researchers who focus on details such as roster make-up, having multiple scorecards from a season provides greater insight into player movement on and off the list of players throughout the year. While many sources cite a fixed roster of names, these scorecards show that what was previously established for the Great Lakes teams under Cochrane overlook names that the manager fielded throughout those seasons.
1942 Great Lakes Bluejackets (season roster):
|22||O. V. Mulkey||Coach|
|Myron “Mush” Esler||Trainer|
|E. A. Thompson||Pub. Rel.|
1943 Great Lakes Bluejackets (season roster):
|25||George “Skeets” Dickey||C|
1944 Great Lakes Bluejackets (season roster):
|31||Lynwood “Schoolboy” Rowe||P|
|8||Gene “Junior” Thompson||P|
|Luke Walton||Admin. Off.|
|Carl Meyer||Yeo. 2/c|
Mr. Ailsworth augmented his scorecard submission by providing his own descriptions as well as contextual historical data (including game outcomes) surrounding each game. Rounding out Ailsworth’s Great Lakes Naval Training Station collection are his original George Brace images (scans of original medium format negative transparencies) of Bluejackets players.
Without a doubt, these seven scorecards are truly invaluable as they provide both an identification resource (for collectors seeking their own Great Lakes scorecards) and an historical record not easily obtained through box scores or newspaper clippings.
Note: Chevrons and Diamonds extends our sincere gratitude to Chuck Ailsworth for making this portion of his collection available to us and to our readers. Mr. Ailsworth provided the scans of each scorecard page along with fantastic descriptions and game results. In addition, Mr. Ailsworth provided his library of original George Burke/George Brace negatives to Chevrons and Diamonds