Category Archives: Bats

Tools of the Trade: Wartime Equipment used by (Former) Professional Ballplayers

Chevrons and Diamonds was founded with the principal purpose to inform and educate readers who are interested in the rich history surrounding the game of baseball and its intertwined history with the armed forces of the United States. Incorporating artifacts such as uniforms, photographs, ephemera and game equipment, we research every possible angle and aspect of a piece in an attempt to share details about players, teams, units or anything that can illustrate and demonstrate each item’s associated history. With many of our readers sharing our interest in collecting baseball militaria artifacts, we end up fielding a fair volume of questions surrounding authenticity, valuation or preservation.

One of the most common areas that readers ask questions about concerns baseball equipment used by troops during World War II. Discovering a common baseball glove or mitt with additional markings such as “U.S.” or “U.S. Army Special Services” at a flea market, estate or garage sale tends to create a bit of a stir for the baseball militaria collector but can leave most other people wondering what they are seeing. Many assumptions are made by both novice and expert alike surrounding the markings as to their purpose and what they may indicate. Perhaps the most common understanding is that all equipment disseminated to each branch bears such markings.

Baseball equipment used by members of the armed forces was not issued to them in the same way that military equipment was provided. Troops were issued uniforms and personal gear along with the appropriate tools that were needed to perform their duties (including weapons and ammunition). These materials were purchased through war department appropriations contracts with dedicated funds allocated through Congress. Every piece of equipment was accounted for through accounting and inventory operational procedures. Though sports equipment was managed through the war and branch departments followed supply department practices, the way that a glove reached a soldier, airman, sailor or marine was far different.

Sports and recreational equipment was not purchased using funds appropriated by Congress (taxes and war bonds). Recognizing the need for troops to maintain physical fitness, athletic agility, hand-eye coordination and dexterity as well as providing for respite from the rigors of combat and operational monotony, baseball men such as Clark Griffith (owner of the Washington Senators) took action to begin raising funds for the purpose of providing baseball equipment for the troops (see: Ted Williams: BATtered, Abused and Loved). Besides Griffith’s efforts, major and minor league club owners donated equipment and uniforms, both newly purchased and used, to the troops. Manufacturers such as Rawlings, GoldSmith MacGregor, Hillerich and Bradsby, Wilson and Spalding all got into the game and donated to the cause. Hollywood stepped up to the plate and contributed as they participated in actor and comedian Joe E. Brown’s tremendous fund-raising efforts (see: Service All-Stars Raising Funds on the Diamond for their Comrades in the Trenches).

While absent stamped marks from the armed forces, these four hand-written characters stood out, leading me to pursue the glove for my collection.

Ultimately, millions of gloves, bats, balls and bases as well as catchers’ and umpires’ protective kits were acquired and distributed throughout the domestic and combat theaters. Our educated opinion is that, despite the abundance of military-marked sports equipment, only a small percentage of the bats, balls, gloves and protective gear was actually marked before being distributed to the troops. With two examples of non-military-marked gloves in the Chevrons and Diamonds Collection that bear personalization from their wartime owners (see: Catching Corpsman: The Search for a Ball-Playing WWII Pharmacist’s Mate and An Intercontinental Wartime Veteran – S/SGT “Chick” McRoberts’ Rawlings “Bill Doak” Model Glove), it is a safe conclusion that much of the wartime-manufactured equipment could have been used by service personnel despite the absence of military stamps.

For baseball collectors, game-used uniforms and equipment have significant meaning. Owning a jersey worn by a famous major leaguer provides a connection to that player and to his on-field exploits. Holding a bat that was used to hit notable home runs or the glove that caught the game-ending out of a historical game is the ultimate for baseball memorabilia collectors. For baseball militaria collectors, this principal holds true; however, provenance is far less attainable for a number of reasons. Regardless of the player’s stature as a professional, service in the armed forces is the great equalizer. A private, whether he is Joe DiMaggio or Joe Smith, is still a private. Their uniforms, bats and gloves were not provided to them through their professional channels that they were accustomed to with endorsement contracts. Once a professional player enlisted or was drafted, his contracts with glove and bat companies ceased. Bats used by players were acquired through the same channels for all men and women who were serving with an exception. In 1943, Zeke Bonura requested a shipment of his signature bats to share with players in his North African baseball leagues. See World Series Champions on Two Continents: the 1943 Yankees).

Unless a player brought his equipment home with him (like S/SGT McRoberts or PhM 2/c Gerald Benninghoff) after his service during the war and provenance is attached to the item by that player, proof of personal attribution is nearly impossible on military-used equipment.

Bats and gloves sold to the general public typically bear player endorsements and stamped signatures with the idea that an amateur or youth player would want to use the equipment of his/her on-field heroes. These same “store-model” bats and gloves were the commonly-used consumer examples that were also purchased or donated for service personnel to use. Until we acquired proof, we could only assume that this same equipment was used by the game’s top (former) professionals while playing on wartime service teams.

Ted Williams, of Oahu’s “Marine Flyers” poses next to his former “Red Sox” and “Cloudbusters” teammate, Johnny Pesky of the NAS Honolulu “Crossroaders” (Chevrons and Diamonds collection).

A few weeks ago, we acquired a type-1 press photo showing Ted Williams (in his Marine Flyers flannels) kneeling next to his former Red Sox and Cloudbusters teammate, Johnny Pesky, (clad in his Naval Air Station Honolulu Crossroaders flannels) at Pearl Harbor’s Furlong Field in 1945. Close examination of the photograph’s details on the bat held by Pesky provided confirmation of our assertions surrounding professionals and the fund-supplied equipment. The bat held by Pesky bears the signature stamp of George “Babe” Ruth with “U.S.N.” stamped directly above the “autograph.” The Hillerich and Bradsby center brand featured the markings that confirm the bat is not a professional model. Rather than the typical “125” placed at the upper center inside the oval (directly above the “Hillerich & Bradsby Co.” word mark that stretches across the oval’s center), Pesky’s bat is clearly stamped with “125BRS” (perhaps indicating “Babe Ruth Special?”), the mark of a consumer bat.

One photo does not prove that all equipment used by wartime active duty major and minor leaguers was fund-purchased but it certainly supports our assertion. Logic would also dictate that actively serving baseball players would be hard pressed to travel between duty assignments bogged down with unnecessary sports equipment in addition to their duffle bags, seabags and flight bags filled with their full complement of uniforms and personal gear. Additional proof along the lines of the Williams and Pesky photo would certainly lend credence to our theory.

As the Chevrons and Diamonds vintage photo archive continues to grow, each image is scanned at the highest possible resolution and corrected to ensure that we have the best possible digital copy preserved for subsequent use in our articles and other related projects. All of our images are heavily scrutinized for details that can help to tell the story of the game or provide useful evidence in support of (or dispel) theories regarding military baseball. A new acquisition arrived in the past day that provided additional support to this idea surrounding professionals and fund-supplied equipment.

Gene Woodling wearing his Navy flannels takes a knee. This photo was heavily modified by a newspaper photo editor requiring heavy-handed correction when added to our collection. Note Woodling’s U.S.N. stamped glove (Chevrons and Diamonds collection).

Twenty-year-old Cleveland Indians rookie Gene Woodling enlisted into the United States Navy following the conclusion of the 1943 baseball season. With just eight games of major league experience (plus four seasons and 462 games in the minor leagues), Woodling was tapped by the Great Lakes Naval Training Station Bluejackets’ manager, Mickey Cochrane, (following the completion of his boot camp training) to play centerfield for the team during the 1944 season (batting .342 for the year). Following his Great Lakes tenure, Woodling was transferred to Pearl Harbor and would play on the Navy’s All-Star team in the Service World Series, facing the Army’s All-Star lineup. Our newly acquired photo shows Woodling kneeling in his two-color, pinstriped Navy flannels  with his left hand inserted into what appears to be a GoldSmith MacGregor “DW” Model Elmer Riddle signature glove (see: A War Veteran Who Never Served). The wrist strap is clearly marked with the familiar “U.S.N.” stamp.

The glove on Woodling’s hand appears to be a GoldSmith MacGregor “DW” Elmer Riddle model. Clearly marked on the wrist strap is the Navy’s “U.S.N.” (Chevrons and Diamonds Collection).

With these two examples showing major league professionals with fund-appropriated equipment, our assertion seems to be supported by the visual evidence within each photograph. Collectors may still acquire period-correct equipment for their collections with certain confidence of wartime use despite the lack of military markings. However, gloves and bats bearing branch markings add so much more to a collection and make for fitting accompaniments for both militaria and baseball displays alike.

 

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Charlie “King Kong” Keller Rattles the Woodshed ending a Yearlong Silence

Baseball militaria can be one of the more challenging areas in which to curate be it for museums or personal collections.  Our regular readers are, no doubt familiar with the difficulties we have encountered as we continue to pursue artifacts. In terms of game-used equipment, uniforms and gloves have been relatively easy to procure while baseballs have been to the contrary in sourcing. With precisely four service-used bats in our collection (two baseball models and two for softball use), it may be more realistic to accept that military lumber is the most elusive.

More than a year has elapsed since we acquired our most recent arrival; a “U.S.” stamped Hillerich & Bradsby H&B “Safe Hit” Jimmie Foxx model bat. Like most of the bats in our collection, the Foxx bat was in rough condition due to extensive use and nearly eight decades of decay leaving the bat more suitable as firewood than as treasured baseball artifact. However, after a modest prescription of cleaning and oiling the Jimmie Foxx bat has become quite a display piece both in our home display and for public showings. The same situation surrounded our “U.S.N.” Stamped Ted Williams signature H&B model bat regarding condition. It seemed that we were destined to source pieces that most collectors and curators would consider to be filler (items that fill collection “holes” until nicer examples can be located).

The lack bat of activity over the last year wasn’t due to the absence of suitable pieces but rather the result of considerable competition for the few that were on the market. With models bearing the names of baseball legends such as Ruth and Gehrig emblazoned on military baseball bats, the market tends to drive the prices to stratospheres well beyond a reasonable budget. Sometimes, the roadblock is purely (poor) timing resulting in missed opportunity.

With the dry spell showing no signs of ceasing, the opportunity arose when another military-marked Hillerich & Bradsby-made bat surfaced on the market in an online auction. This time, the bat was in slightly better shape than our previous acquisitions yet still showed since of heavy usage. The finish of the hickory-wood bat was relatively intact yet nearly all of the black foil was worn away from the brand and signature (all that remained of the markings was the very slight indentations where the bat was struck during the manufacturing process. We encountered a similar situation with an earlier bat arrival to our collection – the early 1950s Ferris Fain model – that was nearly devoid of markings. Restoration of that Fain bat left it as a showpiece in our non-militaria collection. The lack of foil markings on this potential candidate didn’t give us pause.

The barrel markings of the H&B Charlie Keller signature bat include the U.S.N. stamping (indicating Navy use) and Keller’s autograph (Chevrons and Diamonds Collection).

Aside from the missing black foil (“store model” or commercially available bats lack the “burned” brands present on professional models), this piece was clearly a viable candidate for our collection. The accompanying photos (in the listing) of the bat revealed markings indicating that it was another “H&B” model with a designation of ether “NO. 60” or “NO. 80” within the center brand. On the barrel is a rather deep “U.S.N” stamp above a faintly depressed “Charlie Keller” signature. While Keller’s name isn’t nearly as recognizable as both Williams and Foxx (the two names on the aforementioned service bats in our collection), His career was well-known to anyone who was a baseball fan during the “Golden Age” of the game (1930s to the 1950s).

Upon closer examination of the center brand, this Keller model appears to be a “NO. 60” versus our pre-purchase assessment of “80” (Chevrons and Diamonds Collection).

Charles Ernest Keller was born on September 12, 1916 in Middletown, Maryland. He was raised on the family farm and in addition to his schooling, he, like all three of his siblings, put in hard day’s work, rising at 4:00 before heading to school. In the afternoons, Charlie would be at home on the farm, sneaking in some baseball along with his younger brother, Harold before resuming chores after school. Charlie worked hard as a student and athlete resulting in a scholarship to the University of Maryland after graduating from high school in 1933. Continuing to hone his talents in college, his play caught the attention of Yankees scouts who signed him to a contract following his junior season (1936) with the provision of allowing him to finish his senior year and to graduate.

Entering professional baseball, Keller was assigned to the Yankees’ International League affiliate, the Newark (New Jersey) Bears. In his first season, Keller acquitted himself hitting .353 in 536 at bats with a .541 slugging percentage. In the late 1930s, the Yankees roster and their farm system was stocked to the point of embarrassment. Though he demonstrated his skills by easily adapting to professional pitching in his first season at Newark, the logjam in New York kept him from moving up to the big leagues. Despite being held back, Keller’s skills and abilities improved and his offensive output (.365 batting average and .589 slugging percentage with 22 home-runs) made it difficult for Manager Joe McCarthy to keep him down any longer. Charlie Keller earned a roster spot for the 1939 season, splitting 105 games in the outfield (57 in right and 48 in left field) while managing a .334 batting average in 398 at-bats. Not missing a beat from his two seasons in the International League, Keller maintained his power, clubbing 11 homeruns and a .500 slugging percentage as a part-time player. The following season, still platooning between left and right field (sharing time with George Selkirk and Tommy Henrich), Keller was rewarded with his first All-Star appearance despite his batting average slipping to .286 (though his power increased – 21 homers and a .508 slugging percentage), while hitting third in the order. Keller’s major league career was nothing, if not a picture of consistency.

“January 23, 1944 – St. Petersburg, Florida: Charlie Keller. Reports for Duty. Ensign Charlie Keller (left) former New York Yankees star outfielder, shakes hands with LT. Commander W. L. Burget as Keller reported here, yesterday to begin his duties as an athletic officer in the Maritime Training Station physical Education Program” (Chevrons and Diamonds Collection).

By the end of the 1943 season, Keller owned three World Series rings with championships in 1939 (versus Cincinnati), ’41 (Brooklyn) and his most recent from the four-games-to-one dominance over the defending champions St. Louis Cardinals (who defeated the Yankees in 1942). In his 19 series game (in four world series), Keller carried a .306 average with five home runs, a .367 on base percentage slugging his way to .611.  Keller’s career was peaking at the age of 27 with World War II in full swing. The Following the final out in the fifth series game against the Cardinals, the Yankees saw the balance of their stars exiting for military service (Joe DiMaggio was already serving in the Army Air Forces following the conclusion of the ’42 season): catcher Bill Dickey and George Selkirk joined the Navy, Joe Gordon entered the U.S. Army Air Forces. Other players who departed included Ken Sears (Navy), Billy Johnson (served in a war production plant and was drafted into the Army in ’44) and Johnny Murphy (worked at Oak Ridge Mountain where the atomic bombs were developed). Instead of joining one of the armed forces branches, Keller enlisted on January 23, 1944 into the U.S. Maritime Service and was commissioned as an ensign. Though he initially was to be assigned as an athletic training officer, he ended up serving aboard merchant ships in the Pacific Theater for the majority of his tenure. Unlike service aboard a warship, merchant vessels were considered prime targets by enemy submarines and aircraft as cargo carried in their holds sustained combat forces with needed supplies. Keller’s life was very much at risk with his ship constantly at sea between ports.

The U.S. Maritime Service (USMS) was the most risky proposition for those who served aboard merchantmen during World War II.  During WWII, (according to USMM.org) approximately 243,000 Americans served in the USMS, aligning its ranks with that of the wartime U.S. Coast Guard.  With 9,521 killed (either on the high seas, murdered while in captivity as a POW or succumbed to wounds) or approximately 3.9% of all merchant marines, the 1:26 ratio for loss was the lowest compared to the armed forces. Merchant Marines sailors had a one in 26 chance to be killed (a Marine had a 1:34 ratio). This shipping losses were staggering.

In the last few decades, historians and Hollywood have shed considerable light upon the treacherous duty and challenges faced by the North Atlantic Convoys plying the waters between the eastern United States and Europe and through traps set by the Kriegsmarine “Wolfpacks” during the Battle of the Atlantic. However, with the vast Pacific Ocean and convoy routes between ports spanning the length of the U.S. West Coast and the South Pacific, the plight of merchant sailors is largely forgotten. Regardless of his shipboard assignment, Ensign Charlie Keller faced considerably dangerous odds. Keller was a fairly quiet man throughout his life and apparently didn’t speak about his duties during the war.

After more than a year at sea, Ensign Charlie Keller was discharged from the U.S. Maritime Service in mid-August. Rather than spend his pos–war service readjusting at his home, Keller reported to the Yankees during their abysmal 23-day, 24-game road trip (with prior stops at Boston, Philadelphia, Cleveland, Detroit and St. Louis) when the “Bombers” were visiting the Chicago White Sox at Comiskey Park, for a six-game final stop before heading home. Keller made his first appearance of the 1945 season on Saturday, August 18 for a pre-game workout before Chicago hosted Boston for their final game of the series with the Red Sox (the Yankees were still in St. Louis facing the Browns). The visiting Boston club showed Keller the returning war veteran a measure of courtesy by loaning him a Red Sox uniform and allowing him to take up his familiar position in left field. With 678 elapsed days since the final out of Game 5 of the 1943 World Series, the workout with the Red Sox was his first time in a professional setting.

With no time or opportunity to swing a bat or throw a baseball, his Saturday morning exercise at Comiskey was welcomed.  Keller told reporters that he was in good physical condition suggesting, “with a couple weeks work I think I’ll be ready to play ball again.*”  Aside from fielding and working on his throwing abilities, Keller was afforded time at the plate during the Red Sox’s batting practice, taking several swings at pitches. “I could hit it all right, and my eye seems good,” Keller told reporters after the hitting session, “but there’s a lot of difference hitting in batting practice and hitting that ball in a game.” Charlie Keller’s biggest concern was getting his batting up to speed with major league pitching asserting that he faced a challenge, “the hardest thing about getting back in condition to play,” the Yankee emphasized, “hitting that ball.” Despite his thoughts regarding his readiness for game action, Yankees manager Joe McCarthy inserted Keller into the second game of the series-opening double-header on Sunday, August 19 to face Chicago’s starting pitcher, Orval “Lefty” Grove. Batting from his familiar three-spot in the lineup, Keller struck out (behind Bud Metheny’s single) to record the second out of the first inning. Leading off the top of the fourth, Keller found his major league stroke and grooved a single off of Grove for his first hit of the 1945 season.  The day belonged to Lefty Grove as he blanked the Yankees 2-0 surrendering just five hits and two free passes. Keller went 1-4, contributing two of Grove’s five strikeouts.

Though all of the black foil has been worn away, Keller’s signature is still discernible (Chevrons and Diamonds Collection).

Charlie Keller would remain with the Yankees through the 1949 season but his 1943 World Series was the last time he played in a championship game (despite New York’s post-season crowns secured in 1947 and ’49) due to his seemingly annual late-season chronic back injuries. Keller’s abilities were steadily diminishing resulting in his outright release by the Yankees on December 6, 1949. Two weeks later, Keller signed a contract with the Detroit Tigers though he was limited to just 104 games in two years (1950-51).  Keller was released by the Tigers following the end of the 1951 season and was out of baseball until he drove from his Maryland home to New York to meet with Yankees manager, Casey Stengel, asking for the opportunity for a tryout. The Yankees, deficient in left-hand hitting power, signed Keller as a pinch-hitter for just $3,000. Keller appeared in just two games, recording just a single plate appearance on September 18, 1952 (the day after his , pinch hitting for pitcher Vic Raschi and facing Chicago’s Marv Grissom. Keller was struck out looking. In his final game, Keller spelled Mickey Mantle at center-field in the bottom of the ninth inning with the Yankees ahead of Cleveland, 7-0. With Allie Reynolds on the mound in full command, the bottom of the Indians order were retired consecutively with infield ground-outs. Keller never touched the ball in his final career game.

Due to Keller’s pre-war all-star status, his name was a commodity for baseball equipment manufacturers seeking to market their gloves and bats to youth and adult ballplayers, alike. The Hillerich & Bradsby company, aside from producing his professional model bats for Keller’s game use, sold store model bats endorsed by the left fielder and bearing his signature. Our pursuit of the H&B model bat was fruitful as the seller was supportive of the Chevrons and Diamonds mission with a very accommodating offer. Within a few days, the bat arrived. Despite the extensive wear and aging, our assessment is such that the bat is restorable in terms of stabilizing the decay, revitalizing the finish and bringing the black foil brand’s appearance into alignment with the age and wear of the bat (it shouldn’t be “like new” since the wood is heavily worn).

The demands of life and circumstances will prevent us from performing the bat restoration in the near-term but we hope to have this piece presentable before the end of Spring. Stay tuned for a follow-up article detailing the restoration process along with the end result. This Charlie Keller signature model bat will be a centerpiece in our collection as we continue to share the story of military baseball while honoring Ensign Keller’s World War II Maritime Service.

 

See also: Blue Seas, Red Stars” Details How The Soviet Union Honored Heroes of the Battle of the Atlantic

*Keller Rejoins Yankees Today – Poughkeepsie Journal, Sunday, August 19, 1945

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bat Restoration: New Life for Ferris Fain’s Signature lumber

When more than a year creeps by before one realizes that a two-part article was left unfinished (with just the initial piece published), it is a commentary on one or more of the following issues: I am aging and my memory is taking a beating; I have too many irons in the fire and my memory is lagging; I am completely disorganized and distracted by too many activities and my memory failing. The reality is that all three are true.

Last July (the one that occurred in 2018), I published an article about restoring a 60+ year old chunk of Louisville lumber that bears the name of one of my favorite ball players and former WWII U.S. Army Air Forces airman, Ferris Fain (seeClose to Completion: Restoring a 1950s Ferris Fain Signature Model Bat). The article in question has been one of Chevrons and Diamonds more popular pieces as it seems that there are many collectors who are seeking to rejuvenate their aging, decaying and damaged vintage bats. Fortunately for me, the condition of the Ferris Fain signature model Louisville Slugger bat wasn’t bad and it was absent any damage.

In the absence of vintage baseball bat restoration manuals or step-by-step guides, I had to tap into the resources available to me. Turning to my bat-collecting colleagues, I gathered tips from those who have touched on certain aspects of revitalizing the wood, slowing progress of wood rot and breathing new life into the black foil brand marks. It was also helpful that I spent time in doing extracurricular work many years ago (in high school) at the invitation of my high school principal to perform some restoration work on several vintage wood administration chairs (I was a very giving person with my advice for certain teachers) over the course of a week at the end of my sophomore year.

The finished restoration project: The Ferris Fain bat is pictured here with an untouched 1953-dated Fain mini bat (a stadium giveaway from June 3rd of that year) giving a color and tone reference point.

Despite removing very little wood material with the steel wool (sanding would have removed the patina and usage markings entirely), the surface of the bat had a fairly fresh appearance once all of the cleaner had dried. Also, my free-hand restoration of the brand (with an ultra-fine black paint pen) looked a little sloppy and too vibrant in places. Since the goal was to retain as much of the original patina and scars, I first took the steel wool over the fresh brands to remove some of the material before applying the linseed oil treatment. I also left the bat to sit untreated for a few months to allow for some oxidation and darkening of the wood before sealing it with the oil, which is where I left off in early July of 2018.

By winter, the wood of the bat darkened quite a bit. After wiping the bat down with a cloth to remove any dust or particulates that settled onto the surface over the previous several months, I cracked open the linseed oil, soaked a wad of paper towels and began to cover the bat from the bottom, working my way upward towards the handle and knob, leaving the bat saturated with the material. Leaving the bat to stand (vertically, with the handle up) for an hour allowing for the wood grain to absorb the oil. When I returned, I reapplied the oil as before and again left the bat to stand in order to allow for absorption.

Another perspective shows that the colors of the two bats are not that dissimilar. The trapper model first baseman’s mitt is an early 1950s MacGregor signature Ferris Fain model.

After a few days of standing in the garage, the bat’s surface was dry and felt as though it needed to be rubbed out with a terry shop cloth.  Through this process, excess oil was lifted and the bat’s surface responded with a satin shine that enhanced the aged patina. The oil naturally darkened and drew out the wood-grain while providing a true vintage aesthetic to the finished product.

Since completing the Fain bat, I faced a more daunting challenge when a 1940s U.S. Navy stamped Ted Williams endorsed Hillerich & Bradsby bat arrived (see: Ted Williams: BATtered, Abused and Loved). Drawing upon the Fain bat experience, the Williams and subsequent bat restorations have become a fairly simple process.

Hard to Find Military Sticks: “Double-X” Joins My World War II Baseball Lumber Pile

Baseball memorabilia is a highly specialized sub-category of militaria collecting that poses many challenges ranging from availability of artifacts to resources that can be used to facilitate authentication. The two most challenging types of baseball militaria that pose considerable struggles for sourcing are with baseballs and bats.  Though a handful of game-used military bats have surfaced over the years, I have only been successful in securing a small number of them for my collection.

In a few collectors circles, discussions surrounding methods for determining factors and features for what constitutes military or service team equipment. Unlike issued military gear (uniforms, weapons, tools and equipment) that has procurement markings that are applied either via labeling, stenciling or engraving, sports equipment can be and often is unmarked. Considering that during World War II sports equipment wasn’t procured through government contracts or appropriations, a large and unknown percentage of the gear was distributed and disseminated to the troops without being marked. It is highly likely that gloves, balls, catchers’ protective equipment and bats were commonly lacking indicative military (U.S. Army, U.S. Navy, U.S.M.C, etc.) or government marks (U.S.). As this was the case, aside from provenance directly connected to a piece, all of this equipment is relegated to simply being specific-period sports equipment.

Much of the equipment sent to the troops did receive markings that are can be a bit of a challenge to understand (especially in the area of gloves). Regarding baseball bats, inconsistencies abound in terms of both applied military or government-esque markings and with the varying brands and models that were distributed. Although bats made by Hillerich & Bradsby dominated the market during the 1940s, their brand wasn’t the only one finding its way to the combat-theater diamonds and domestic-base fields as examples of other makers could be seen in the hands of ball-playing GIs from makers such as A. J. Reach, Wilson, Goldsmith and Spalding. Other considerations must also be made for brand subsets as Hillerich & Bradsby catered to different markets such as professionals, collegiate, little leagues and amateurs for their products. Aside from the well-known Louisville Slugger models (which had both professional and consumer variants), Hillerich & Bradsby also manufactured the H&B branded bats which were a lower grade and inexpensive offering (see: Louisville Slugger Bat Dating Guide at KeyManCollectibles.com). Considering that equipment originated from various sources (purchased on behalf of the troops through the Professional Baseball Fund, the Bat and Ball Fund, the USO, etc., donated by minor league teams or even produced and donated by the equipment manufacturers themselves), collecting and verifying military-use (without the aforementioned military markings) can pose an authentication challenge for collectors.

For my own collection, military-used bats have been difficult to acquire due to the limited numbers that have come to market since I have been on the hunt. The first piece that I was able to acquire wasn’t a BASEball bat but rather a WWII H&B model 102 Soft-Ball bat with a U.S.N. stamp (1940s softball bats had significantly smaller barrel diameters than their baseball counterparts) with a taped handle. The condition, though used is excellent showing no signs of rot or grain separation. After a minor cleaning and coating the bat with linseed oil, the bat looks fantastic. It took several years before I was able to land my second bat, this time an actual baseball model, which turned out to be a rather rare Ted Williams signature H&B version (see: Ted Williams: BATtered, Abused and Loved) which is a welcome addition to the collection, especially after giving it a slight restoration.

Recently, another bat that came by way of a fellow baseball and (new) militaria collector is a Louisville Slugger Model 102 Soft Ball bat with a simple U.S. stamp. This particular bat arrived with a fairly heavy-handed in-process restoration (the finish was removed and the wood had been sanded smooth). Thankfully, the stamped brands were still very apparent (if not slightly softened from the finish removal and resurfacing) prompting me to apply a few liberal coats of linseed oil. With the new finish applied, the grain of the wood was intensified and the appearance was greatly enhanced. Within the span of a few months, my military baseball bats collection tripled though two of the three were softball pieces.

The “U.S.” stamp is either faintly stamped or worn. Rather than having a branch-specific or the “Special Services” stamp, this Foxx model us simply marked “U.S.”

In the last few weeks, yet another piece surfaced that looked to be a fantastic fit in several aspects: condition, player endorsement, military markings and bat model.  Similar to the Ted Williams bat already in my collection, this piece also carried the H&B brand but with a Model 14 designation. The best part of all was that the price was right. Aside from the lengthy shipping time, I was elated when the package arrived intact. When I removed the stick from the box, I observed that the condition was in a bit worse state than had appeared in the seller’s photos. On the face of the barrel (opposite the brand and markings), there is some grain separation with a layer of the wood pulling away leaving a very apparent crevice. Also not visible in the photos is a missing wedge section from the knob which, for a 75 year-old and well-used bat is fairly minor. The brand and the stampings are somewhat shallow and appear to be either worn or perhaps sanded during an older restoration attempt. Despite these minor aesthetics issues, the bat will clean-up nicely and look exceptional with a liberal coating of linseed oil.

Having mentioned in a smattering of articles over the years that my teams are the Dodgers and Red Sox, it should make sense that the endorsement on this new acquisition (as with the Ted Williams bat) features a prominent Boston slugger who was nearing the end of his storied career during World War II.  By the start of the 1942 season, 34 year-old Jimmie “Double X” Foxx was suffering from a broken rib that he sustained during spring training which nagged him throughout the season. By June 1, “The Beast” (as he was also known) sold to the Chicago Cubs by the Red Sox much to the disappointment of the Boston faithful. Foxx appeared in 70 games for the Cubs but his production was greatly diminished (as compared to his career) prompting him to announce his retirement at season’s end. In 1943, Foxx spent the year away from the game, spending time with his new wife and her two children before volunteering for military service only to be rejected due to a medical condition. Instead of Jimmie Foxx finding his way into an armed forces uniform and serving overseas, his name traveled the globe to far away diamonds on signature gloves and endorsed bats such as this one.

With the Red Sox represented in my collection with two endorsed models from these legendary (and Hall of Fame) hitters, the hunt is on for a WWII service team Dodgers bat.

Ted Williams: BATtered, Abused and Loved

Under the darkened late-January skies in a prototypical winter downpour, the for putting pen to paper for this article was taking shape as the anticipation of the day’s impending announcement of the 2019 Baseball Hall of Fame voting results was swirling in my head. This off-season’s hot stove league has been relatively cool in terms of the big names that had become available following the commencement of free agent market.  With so much to write about, I am wondering why today’s topic kept rising to the surface.

Several weeks ago, a fellow baseball memorabilia collector discovered bat that he would otherwise have ignored (for his own collection) until he looked closely through the grime and extensive wear and abuse to discover three black-foil stamped letters positioned just above the imprint of a ball-player’s signature.  With consideration of the bat’s abused state and a previous bat restoration project in mind, my friend chose to send this particular piece of lumber my way.  Additionally, the vintage bat that my colleague found had significance and would be a perfect augmentation to the baseball militaria that I collect.

In the midst of the Great War, Washington Senators players Eddie Cicotte and Nick Altrock flank Chicago White Sox’s Ray Schalk with ball-shaped buckets used to accept donations from fans attending their game as they raise money for the Professional Base Ball Fund, raising money to provide baseball equipment for American troops (image source: Leland’s).

During World War II, there was an incredible undertaking by several organizations to raise money in order to provide special services to give the troops basic creature comforts that would otherwise have been unavailable. United States citizens (taxpayers) were financially responsible to properly train and outfit soldiers, sailors Marines, airmen and Coast Guardsmen with uniforms, weapons, toiletries and to feed them while they performed the duties of defeating enemy forces. Utilizing precious resources for recreation or entertainment was not part of the financial responsibilities of the American people though such activities were truly needed in order to maintain the morale and well-being of the troops.

From December 7, 1941 through September 2, 1945 (VJ-Day), more than 16 million Americans served in the United States armed forces (Army, Army Air Forces, Navy, Marines and Coast Guard) which accounted for more than 11-percent of the nation’s population (73 percent of those served overseas). The need for morale-boosting and recreation of the troops was considerable.  World War II was entering into its golden era during which the game was reaching its pinnacle as the pastime of Americans.  Though other sports were certainly part of the recreation offerings, baseball was central. GIs could carry gloves and a ball in their rucksack or sea bags, have bats and other equipment stored aboard their ships, inside their tanks or aircraft and have them accessible for a pickup game or just to have a catch between operations or training cycles.

John E. Madden, legendary thoroughbred horse owner who played baseball in his younger years, made a sizable donation to Clark Griffith’s Ball and Bat Fund during WWI.

The numbers of bats, balls, gloves, mitts, catcher’s protective kits and bases distributed throughout the European and Pacific Theaters and domestically is staggering.  Washington Senators owner, Clark Griffith reprised his WWI efforts in fund raising (“The Base Ball Fund” used to purchase baseball equipment for the troops).  Just four Pearl Harbor was attacked, Griffith rekindled the program and began fund raising and negotiating for discounted equipment pricing with Spalding, Wilson and Goldsmith makers of balls and gloves and with Hillerich & Bradsby (makers of Louisville Slugger bats). By the end of that December, Griffith raised $25,000 from the American and National Leagues, the Baseball Writers Association and from Commissioner Kennesaw Mountain Landis’ MLB discretionary fund and a subsequent order for 18,000 balls and 4,500 gloves and mitts was placed. The “Baseball Equipment Fund” (also often referred to as the “Professional Baseball Fund”) raised enough money to purchase more than 280,000 baseballs and nearly 45,000 bats by the end of 1943. Griffith’s effort wasn’t the only game in town. Aside from funds being raised by professional athletes, celebrities, companies and even civic leaders donated both money and privately sourced baseball equipment. Sporting Goods manufacturers donated equipment and uniforms to the armed forces as did dozens of minor league teams.

By the war’s end, the numbers of balls, bats and other related equipment would reach into the millions. Unfortunately, not all of the pieces used by GIs were specifically marked beyond the original brands or stamps placed by the manufacturer. Those that did receiving some sort of imprinting make connecting these pieces to the armed forces quite simple (save for the counterfeiters that have flooded the market with doctored baseballs. See: Faked Military Baseballs).  With 45,000 bats shipped overseas through 1943, one can easily extrapolate that upwards of 100,000 bats (of not more) were used across both combat theaters and domestically throughout the war. One would imagine that the availability of game-used military bats to be significant and yet, marked examples are somewhat scarce.

In the world of sports memorabilia collecting, game used item are obtained at a premium value as opposed to the more traditional pieces. With auction prices being realized for baseball memorabilia that are attributed to the game’s greats yielding dollar figures with six and seven digits, the idea of obtaining such treasures is but a passing thought or a fantasy for most collectors.  In a few instances, baseball militaria memorabilia (with player attribution and provenance) is experiencing a similar, though less significant, effect. In the last 24 months, a post-World War II baseball uniform group that was attributed to Herb Bremer, a three-season utility infielder and catcher for the legendary “Gashouse Gang” of the St. Louis Cardinals, sold for at auction for more than $2,500. A little more than three years earlier, the Navy jersey that belonged to Bremer’s Cardinals teammate, netted nearly $17,000 proving that Hall of Fame provenance garners greater interest and value.

When the bat arrived, the center brand of this H&B store model Ted Williams bat was in good condition. The light areas in the wood indicate how dried out the bat had become.

Cracking open the crate of sports equipment, these marines (and a sailor) inspect the bounty of baseballs, bats, catcher’s gear and other sporting goods. The Baseball Equipment Fund ensured that Americans serving throughout the globe were properly equipped.

As mentioned previously, in early 2018, I received a 1950s Louisville Slugger store model (I.e. non-professional) bat that bore the endorsement (I.e. facsimile signature) from one of my favorite ball players who also happened to have served during WWII, Ferris Fain. The bat was heavily worn and virtually all of the black foil had been worn out of the shallow stamped markings (professional models have a burned-in brand). Since the bat wasn’t a particularly valuable piece, I opted take the route of restoration so that the wood and the stampings would display well and so that people could discern the specific model of bat. The Fain bat looks fantastic and will look great with any baseball memorabilia showing. Regardless of my efforts with the Fain lumber, the pursuit of a game-used military baseball bat continues.

In the arena of game used bats, there is a substantial line of demarcation between what professional ball players use (within the professional game) and what was seen on diamonds during World War II for service members playing on unit teams or in recreational games. Unfortunately, there is no documentation available to shed light on the models of bats that were distributed to troops. It is very possible that professional ball players found themselves withdrawing store model bats from the dugout bat racks during games played in overseas and combat theaters. However, it is just as likely that the stars of the game (such as DiMaggio or Ted Williams) were still able to receive their preferred bat models while serving during the war.

The end of the barrel of the bat is very darkened from years of being stored on end. The erosion of cellulose between the grain is due to prolonged exposure to moisture. The “U.S.N. marking is visible just above Ted William’s foil-stamped signature.

When I opened and retrieved from the box that shipping box this most recent treasure, I was astonished to see this wretched and predominantly disfigured piece of lumber that, more than 70 years ago resembled a bat. Though the black foil markings were heavily worn, the signature of the bat’s endorser, belonging to Navy Pre-flight Chapel Hill Cloudbusters’ left fielder, Ted Williams practically leapt off the tattered surface of the wood at me. Rather than bearing Hillerich and Bradsby’s markings of a Louisville Slugger brand model, this particular bat was marked with the “H & B” center brand indicating that it was an inexpensive store model of lower grade than the aforementioned Ferris Fain bat in my collection. Not only did the H&B models carry a lower retail price but they were made with lower grade materials. Based upon specifics within the brand markings that were used on these models for a 20-year span beginning in 1932, it is easy to assume that the bat was used during WWII with the additional “U. S. N.”

A few layers of wood have peeled away leaving this dished-out flat area opposite to the markings and William’s foil signature.

As I assessed the dozens upon dozens of gauges, cracks and the grain separation due to moisture damage (with a bit of rot), it was very apparent why my colleague sent this bat to me rather than to retain it within his own collection.  In examining the battle scars one can draw the conclusion this bat was used to swing at sizable rocks (rather than baseballs) that created dents and divots in the bat’s surface.  At the end of the barrel, the wood blackened as the result to prolonged exposure to water which also resulted in the decay and erosion of the softer cellulose material between the wood-grains. The center brand was in acceptable condition despite all of the wear and damage but the player’s endorsement signature had been severely and negatively impacted.

Aside from the nicks and divots in the bat’s surface, the darker stained wood shows beautiful grain and figuring.

Understanding the scarcity of these bats, the decision to stabilize and preserve the bat in its present condition was simple. Taking into account the bat’s game use and historic value (in the context of use during WWII), the approach of doing no harm during the restorative process kept the effort minimal. There would be no sanding or wood filling and no attempts to mask any of the damage. The goal was to decrease the wood decay while working to make the bat a little more presentable. Incorporating grade #0000 super fine steel wool (as the only abrasive material) combined with judicious amounts of Goo Gone and elbow grease, my work began to cut through the years of grime (and some spilled paint) revealing the beauty of the dark wood as it began to emerge.

Moving slowly while taking care to avoid removing any of the remaining black foil markings in the brand, a few hours had elapsed and I began wiping off the steel wool and Goo Gone residue. The rough areas had been rendered smooth and the bat looked considerably improved. For nearly two weeks, the residue from the cleaner dried which showed that the wood was in serious need of preservation with the wood grain revealing a significant need for some sort of sealing. Seeking to maintain the natural look of the wood and to avoid detracting from the aged aesthetics, I opted to apply linseed oil to the entire surface. For the first two applications, the bat absorbed the oil like a thirsting man in the desert in desperate need of water. After the third linseed oil application, I left the bat to dry for a few hours before rubbing down with a soft cloth to remove any unabsorbed residue and to bring out a little bit of a shine.  While the results of the preservation are were pleasing, the bat would never be the centerpiece of a collection.

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