Category Archives: Uniforms
Keeping a watchful eye out for military baseball items may seem like an easy task to an outsider, especially when it comes to searching for uniform elements such as jerseys, trousers or caps. To those of us who have continually running searches that employ a wide range of keywords, hoping to find that one elusive piece that may have been overlooked by less discerning collectors, the task is a challenge. I have written in a handful of previous articles of the difficulties in finding the crown of the baseball uniform; the baseball cap.
A few searches of online auctions at any given time could, on occasion, yield a vintage ball cap within the results. However, knowing what to look for makes all of the difference in confidently acquiring a piece (especially if it lacks provenance). Studying vintage ball caps, whether from the minor or major leagues or from semi-pros and amateur leagues that operated in the last century will carry the prospective collector far when attempting to identify and date the items.
There are a handful of resources that exist (at present) online. One of them, the Baseball Hall of Fame Museum in Cooperstown, New York shares photographs of examples of the artifacts housed in their facility. Perhaps the most invaluable online resource is MLBCollectors.com which provides incredibly detailed photography combined with dates and some descriptions for uniforms from every major league team which I use to evaluate designs, construction and manufacturer’s tags as known examples for comparison.
To further the comparative analysis, our extensive vintage photography archive provides numerous examples of caps (and uniforms) worn by military ball teams and acts as a catalog of what to be on the lookout for.
The most consistent design used across all branches during WWII was a six-panel crown made of dark (navy) blue wool with a leather sweatband. Whether plain or with an emblem attached to the front panels, these hats were common throughout the armed forces service teams. In addition to what was seen on the military diamonds, caps were worn by some personnel within the ranks of the various branches as part of their working uniforms. From the outside of the caps, they can appear to be identical to those worn by players on the field (in some instances, these hats could be distinguishable by the presence of a military stock or supply number inside of the sweatband). Wool caps were standard military supply system-stocked item for aeronautical materials Class-37 and was available for appropriation in three colors; red, green and blue (the blue color was so dark that it appeared, in many instances to be black).
In observing the many examples of service members’ caps, it has been noted that there are considerable variations that range from differing sweatband configurations, materials (and color variations) on the underside of the bill, manufacturers’ tags (ranging from military stock system, private purchase or none at all). However, from the topside perspective, the caps appear to be identical.
When a WWII-era navy blue wool ball cap became available, it was listed merely as a wool baseball cap that was part of a veteran’s estate. Discussion with the seller confirmed that the World War II veteran most-likely played baseball during his wartime service as there were Navy photo albums (not for sale) that held some images of the sailor in his baseball uniform (though I could only take his word). The cap showed some wear but was in overall good condition so there was no hesitation to bid on it.
- Navy ball caps: a brief history (Military Times)
Available Reproduction Ball Caps:
- History Preservation Associates – USN/USMC Blue Ball Cap
- WWII Navy/USMC Aviator’s Ball Cap (SM Wholesale)
What does one write about as a follow-up to an article (see: “Talk to me, Goose!” A 1950s-Vintage U.S.A.F. Uniform Touches Down) that essentially covered the details surrounding the acquisition of two mid-1950s United States Air Force baseball uniforms? I could bore readers to the point of yawn-induced tears rattling off the finer details surrounding the construction and design of the second of the pair of uniforms that were acquired together earlier this year. Perhaps a better route would be to discuss the (non-existent) finer points of not having a shred of detail surrounding the veteran to whom this group of baseball uniforms once belonged? One glance at the front of the uniform’s jersey (the focus of this article) is the most-telling aspect as to why this opening paragraph is a blatant example of the author reaching for something, ANYTHING to discuss for this article.
Richly-contrasting colors are part of what grabbed our interest and motivated us to acquire these uniforms (apart from their military use). As with the Goose AB’s red and cream two-toned jersey, this uniform set featured a two-color scheme that was not quite as elaborate. The jersey’s green shell is set apart with cream-colored raglan sleeves with a wide green banded collar that extends down to form the placket. The entirely blank front panel gives the uniform an otherwise bland appearance (in contrast to the Goose Air Base jersey). Across the back, however, is a different story.
Representative of what a typical industrial baseball league team would wear, this jersey’s lettering is formed into an arch shape with the remaining letters (that didn’t fit over the top) forming a line that closes the open bottom of the shape. In creamy white athletic felt lettering, “28 TH SUPPLY SQD” that, as far as can be determined, refers to the U.S. Air Force command that was represented by the team. Unfamiliarity with the USAF’s historical command structure poses a challenge with researching the unit in order to determine where the squadron was assigned in the mid-1950s. Left to make an educated guess as to the unit specifics, the 28th was either connected to the 28th Mission Support Group, 28th Military Airlift or the 28th Bombardment Group. Further research into the unit identity is forthcoming and ongoing.
Due to these both being stored within the same USAF-issued B4 garment bag that the seller (from whom these were obtained) purchased at an estate sale, it seems reasonable to assume that they originated from the same Air Force veteran. A thorough examination of both uniform sets yielded no names or personal identification stenciled markings. Inside the collar of the 28th Supply Squadron jersey is the only marking a white fabric strip with an ink-stamped, five-character alpha-numeric that is stapled directly above the manufacturer’s label. With all of the military baseball uniforms that we have seen over the past decade, this is the first with the “Power’s Athletic Wear” label.
Dating this uniform may seem to be a routine exercise of confirmation considering the verifiable age of the other uniform (that was grouped together in the Air Force garment bag), but it is a task that can further help in positively identifying the unit and possibly, the original owner associated with it. After a few moments of online searching the details of the uniform’s tag, we discovered the location of the manufacturer and found that the company was still in operation. We reached out to Powers seeking confirmation and requested further details surrounding the uniform’s age. It is possible that the 28th Supply Squadron sourced their teams’ uniforms directly from the manufacturer due to their home air base’s (Ellsworth Air Force Base, Rapid City, South Dakota) close proximity to the manufacturer or their distributor.
Adding two vintage U.S. Air Force uniforms to the stable in one fell swoop has filled in a gaping hole in the collection and addresses the (“what, no Air Force?”) questions that arise at public showings. As of publication, we are still researching to positively identify the command and hopefully, the ball-playing airman who wore these uniforms on the diamond.
Five Marines flannels (one uniform set and four additional jerseys) dominate the Chevrons and Diamonds uniform collection which, for a veteran of the U.S. Navy can be a point of contention. Taking further stock of the flannels, three U.S. Army, two U.S. Navy and now one U.S. Coast Guard baseball jerseys are also part of the collection.
Personalizing or associating the pieces with my family’s legacy of service shows an imbalance or disparity of representation. Looking at the service history of my family, my father is an Army combat veteran (Vietnam); maternal grandfather was a WWII Navy combat veteran; three uncles who served in the Navy (WWI, WWII), another uncle (WWI, WWII, Korean War) in the Army and not a single, solitary veteran of the U.S.M.C. or the Coast Guard. I also have a relative who served in the U.S. Army Air Corps/U.S. Army Air Forces and was a guest of the Empire of Japan (for the entire duration of WWII – a Corregidor Defender) and, to represent him, there is an early 1940s jersey in my collection (Bolling Field). As to those post- September 18, 1947 (the date that the U.S. Air Force was established as its own branch of the U.S. Armed Forces) jerseys? Zilch. Having USAF veterans in my family including my son and my father-in-law (who, having played collegiate baseball for the University of Oregon and Portland State College as a southpaw pitcher, donned flannels for the USAF and chucked against a few Bay Area Pacific Coast League teams in the late 1950s), the absence of this branch’s baseball threads from my museum truly stood out.
The stark red script athletic felt lettering, “Goose AB” stood out against the creamy white material like a vintage neon sign against a pitch-black sky. It took just a second to register. With one other item in the Chevrons and Diamonds collection originating from the Goose Bay Air Base (see: Competition Awards: Buckling Up Metal Baseball Treasure), I realized quickly that the red and white baseball uniform was used at the U.S. Air Force base in Labrador, Canada. Established in 1941 as part of the Lend Lease agreement between the United States and Great Britain, the airfield was constructed and readied for use a base of operations for ferrying aircraft to England and to provide long-range air cover for convoys between the U.S. and the British Isles. While the baseball championship medal (referenced in the story linked above) in this collection was awarded during WWII (in 1944, specifically), it was immediately clear that the Goose AB baseball uniform was from a later time-period.
Without any hesitation, a deal was struck with the seller and in just a few short days, the package arrived. Aside from being considerably wrinkled, the condition of the garments was fantastic yet it is readily apparent that the uniform saw action on the diamond. In hopes of discovering identifying marks left by the Air Force veteran who owned it, the only means of determining the age was with the MacGregor-brand manufacturer’s tag. Using the Chevrons and Diamonds tag-history as a reference, it was easy to determine that the jersey was made between 1955 and ‘56. During these years, Goose Air Base was part of Strategic Air Command and Northeast Air Command becoming the site of the first nuclear weapons within Canada’s borders.
Apart from determining the age of the uniform, there were no marks that would indicate who the veteran was that originally owned it. My last attempt to identify the airman sent me directly to the seller with my inquiry. The response deflated all hope as the seller stated, “I found these tucked in an B4 garment bag which I picked up an estate sale.” The message continued, “There was also an Air Force handbook dated 1951 and several field caps,” and yet no markings or stenciled names were present. This airman, at least for the present time, will remain unknown.
The Goose AB uniform itself is constructed from lightweight cotton. The base shell is cream-white with red raglan sleeves and a broad red placket and collar. There are five white, two-hole buttons down the placket face. The color-matched red athletic felt lettering on the front and numeral on the back are affixed with a machine-serge-stitch surrounding each character. Aside from the heavy wrinkling of the fabric, the overall condition of this uniform is excellent.
Sharing this uniform with my father-in-law would have been special, especially since it dates from close to the same era during which he served. His passion for the game never ceased until his passing several years ago.
As this uniform was part of a grouping that contained two separate USAF baseball uniforms, the second one will be part of an upcoming article.
I have ridden long bicycle rides that drain every ounce of energy from my body – riding 100 miles while climbing a combined 8,000 feet of elevation saps me of every measure of strength. If I was a few decades younger, I probably would bounce back within a few hours but at my present age, the recovery take a bit longer. In the sphere of writing, a marathon of research, documentation and story-forming has a similar effect on my mind. As with a lengthy ride, the enjoyment that I experience over the course of the event keeps me going but once the final punctuation mark is placed and the piece is published, I am intellectually exhausted.
The two-part feature (Part I and Part II) that focused on Sam Chapman that published nearly two weeks ago left me somewhat vacant of the motivation to pick up the keyboard and begin working on one of the many story ideas that are in my mental queue. In fact, my mind is somewhat scattered as to which direction to take as the baseball militaria pieces have been arriving with an unprecedented frequency and rapidity leaving me considerably overwhelmed and awestruck. In addition to the influx of artifacts, our recent public-display event was nothing short of an incredible experience.
The artifact that truly catapulted this endeavor a decade ago was the Inquisition of a 1943-vintage Marine Corps baseball uniform. The gray wool flannel, accented with red wool athletic felt lettering and the red rayon soutache stirred me to research and to investigate what else may be available. Throughout the past ten years, I have documented every uniform that I have seen (some of that effort has resulted in articles and additions to the online uniform archive) regardless of my success or failure in adding them to our museum. This documentation assists me in properly dating pieces as well as providing a means with which to gauge market availability.
During a public display event in 2018, one of the constant questions asked by viewers of the Chevrons and Diamonds mobile museum of baseball militaria artifacts was, “why isn’t the Coast Guard represented” or, “what, no Coast Guard?” among the vintage jerseys and uniforms depicting the Army, Navy, Marines and Army Air Forces. My constant refrain to those inquiries was that in the many years spent researching and acquiring artifacts, I hadn’t seen a single baseball uniform item from the Coast Guard. The absence of one of these uniforms from the market continued well in to 2019 when, not just one, but two vintage Coast Guard baseball pieces came to market on the same day in early June.
The U.S. Coast Guard baseball militaria listings depicted two vastly different uniforms. The first one that drew my interest was one that appeared to be a home (white) wool flannel uniform set (jersey and trousers) that was considerably discolored from both use and aging. Both pieces were trimmed in what appears (from the auction’s accompanying photos) to be a Kelly green thin line of soutache. The jersey is adorned with athletic felt lettering and numerals in the same color which. One might question the colors due to the USCG’s traditional blue and white scheme but it isn’t unusual, especially during WWII when textiles were in high demand for the war-effort. The second listing had a more conventionally-styled uniform set. The lightweight white cotton jersey was trimmed with a thin line of navy blue soutache with color-matched small, athletic felt block lettering spelling out C O A S T G U A R D across the chest. On the back of the jersey is a single, large color-matched numeral. The trousers were a bit of a departure – while the material appeared to be the same as that of the jersey (save for the color – blue versus white), they lacked the continuation of the souatche theme (which, should have been at thin line of white on the trousers’ outer seam). The thick band of white was an inconsistency for the trousers as was a lack of any manufacturer’s labels.
This tale of two jerseys is one of extremes within the realm of realistic valuation and pricing on the parts of the sellers. The white and blue cotton uniform was on the low side of the normal price range (less than $100) while the white and green set was priced at $50 south of $1,000. Both uniforms possessed nothing in terms of provenance and only the white and blue set could be positively dated due to the presence of a manufacturer’s tag in the collar area. Sewn into the inside of the collar was the familiar GoldSmith Preferred Products tag that dates it between 1940 and 1945 (in 1946, the company began to transition toward the MacGregor brand, the name obtained from the prestigious sporting goods company, Crawford McGregor & Canby Co. which Goldsmith acquired in 1936). The other set bore no tags, leaving the approximate age to be determined by the design and cut of the uniform.
What is the difference between the terms “scarce” and “rare” when they are applied to vintage artifacts or collectibles? While many might consider the two terms to be subjective or even synonymous, they do bear different meanings. The seller of the white and green uniform added the adjective to “rare” in order to provide justification for the highly unrealistic auction listing price “Extremely rare, especially in its amazing condition, USCG baseball uniform.” The term, “rare” was used but not in the manner that was desired. The jersey is truly infrequently-occurring and uncommon in the marketplace. What the seller meant to say was that it was scarce and in exceedingly high demand.
scarce: Hard to find; absent or rare. (Websters: “deficient in quantity or number compared with the demand : not plentiful or abundant”)
rare: Infrequently occurring; uncommon, (Websters: “marked by unusual quality, merit, or appeal”)
However, the initial $950.00 asking price along with the current and greatly-reduced and still tremendously over-priced figure ($550.00) over a month later coupled with the caveat, “This is the last price reduction. If it doesn’t sell for $550, I will try a different venue” has yet to generate the interest that would validate the “Extremely” qualifier. While the uniform is decidedly rare, lacking provenance from a known ballplayer, it is merely vintage clothing and worth less than $100 on the market.
I turned my attention entirely towards the white and blue uniform set as it was solidly a wartime item. I set my snipe amount and waited for the the auction to close. The lone bidding competition was showing the minimum bid amount but I had to set my snipe for the amount that I was willing to pay and hope that the competition had a lower bid. Inside of the last 10 seconds of the auction, my bid was automatically placed which secured the win. The only question that I had at that point was whether or not the jersey could transit from one coast to the other in time to add it to the mobile museum display that coming weekend. I reached out to the seller (after completing the swift payment in hopes that it would be sent as soon as possible) regarding the upcoming showing and without any hesitation, shipped the uniform with priority.
This year’s display had it all – uniforms represented from each branch and yet we still encountered a veteran who didn’t see their branch represented until we were able to direct their attention to the two naval aviation branch jerseys prominently displayed. Along with the other baseball militaria artifacts, the Coast Guard jersey was prominently displayed and several USCG veterans were amazed that such a vintage flannel existed. Most viewers of the exhibit had no idea that baseball was played by service members during the war or that professionals joined the ranks, leaving their careers either on hold or ended, completely when they joined.
After nearly 1,500 words, I can see that I have returned to ride yet again. My writer’s exhaustion is now clearly behind me and I am on my way, once again.
Judging by the traffic flow through this site, one of Chevrons and Diamonds most popular features for readers is the Archive of Military Baseball Uniforms. Since it was established with a dozen jerseys and uniforms (including those in our own collection), it has grown tremendously as we add pieces that surface (and, hopefully, we catch them when they are listed), capturing photos and researching their designs, features and the associated assertions or provenance regarding their history. As of publication of this article, there are currently 19 items, with at least one queued up to add to the line-up. It should be prefaced that the critical commentaries regarding the pricing employ a measure of supposition and assumption (coupled with a small dose of sarcasm) while not taking anything away from the sellers’ rights to ask what they deem necessary.
In the last two weeks, we have observed three noteworthy jerseys listed at (online) auctions and there is a noticeable, if not just a negative trend with the sellers’ valuations. In September of this years, that upward trend of listing prices with the spate of wartime and mid-century Marines jerseys was noted with our article, Marines Baseball: The Many. The Pricey. – all of those jerseys remain unsold and relisted week after week. In the past decade, jerseys used by the Marines are the overwhelmingly market-dominant artifacts within this arena which causes anything different to stand out.
Aside from the scarcity of baseball uniforms from the U.S. Army Air Forces (or its predecessor, the U.S. Army Air Corps), U.S. Navy pieces are a rare breed among wartime flannels. Two weeks ago, as an auction for a WWII Navy jersey was nearing its closing, the bidding drove the price higher from its $9.99 opening bid amount. After a ten-day run, the 21st and winning bid of $204.02 was a reasonable and sensible, considering the infrequency that any vintage Navy jerseys come to market. Among collectors in genre, the Navy jerseys that are on their wish lists are those that were used in the Pre-flight schools, used by the Norfolk area teams in 1942 to early 1943 and those that were on the Hawaiian and Pacific Island diamonds in late 1943 to late 1945. The Navy flannel in the recent listing was clearly not from any of these teams or games. Granted, the chances that one of those jerseys of having been game worn and used by a major leaguer are very good, but only one of them has surfaced in the last decade.
Reminiscent of the ridiculous asking prices of the aforementioned Marine Corps jerseys, not wanting them to be uniquely or alone in that sphere of insanity, the next two additions to the Chevrons and Diamonds archive, while they are quite fantastic pieces that would be fantastic additions to a military baseball collection, they are priced in a sphere well above reality. Both pieces were used by army personnel. one domestically and the other overseas, the sellers are either gouging and seeking to wait countless months, renewing their auctions repeatedly after the passage of each six-day segment without a bite – or – they simply do not understand the value of these items. Bear in mind that in recent months, there have been two 1940s (WWII-era) major league jerseys sold at auction, both worn by unknown players and have sold in the neighborhood of $200-$250. It is appropriate that these two jerseys, one from WWII and the other from the early 1950s and both from unknown players (most likely just average “Joes”) should be valued in the $75-100 range, when correctly compared with historic major league pieces.
Of the two Army jersey listings, one from the joint Army and USAF bases at Wiesbaden, Germany, is incorrectly listed as a World War II era piece. Since the War ended in 1945 and the base, a captured and converted Third Reich military facility, effectively began functioning as a U.S. base in 1946. While one might consider this fact a mere technicality, if the jersey was used in that or the immediately subsequent years, the features of the jersey itself give away the actual era (the 1950s). Listing the jersey as a buy-it-now with the price, $2 shy of $300, the seller is trolling for an ill-informed buyer (a sucker) who will bite on the fantastic design and excellent condition of the flannel. However, the seller left the door cracked for more astute buyers, indicating that a best offer will be accepted. Doubts remain as to the reasonable nature of an offer that would be deemed acceptable by the seller. Despite all of the pricing discussion, the jersey itself is a fantastic example of post-war design and the influence of the major leagues cascading down to the trenches of the military game. By the start of the 1955 season, the Dodgers was established as the dominant National League franchise, appearing in (and losing) five World Series since the end of WWII. The Wiesbaden Flyers jersey borrows many elements of Brooklyn’s uniform styling from this era, making it quite aesthetically appealing, though not for $298.00. As of publishing this article, the overpriced Wiesbaden jersey remains available.
Not to be outdone by mere pretenders, another seller recently listed a vintage, WWII-era jersey that, aside from the unrealistic market expectations, is an otherwise fantastic piece. Listed with a single purchase option, the $599.99 (at least one needn’t spend a full $600 on sale price! The buyer gets to keep that $0.01 in his or her bank accounts…save for the $12.90 shipping charge) is beyond ridiculous and has edged to the realm of insanity. The road gray flannel clearly dates from the 1940s and, based upon the design, its age places it more from the World War II-period. The two-color block lettering that presents the base-name (Fort Lewis) in an arc across the chest is stylistically representative of what can be seen in most World War II uniforms. Other features of the jersey includes the vintage U.S. Army logo patch on the sleeve and the chain stitching across the back which might be the basis for the seller’s exorbitant selling price. Rather than having a game-worn jersey from a player, for a penny under $600, one can acquire a jersey worn by the most legendary figure from the Fort Lewis baseball team; its mascot. The short window of time that this jersey was available has expired and the seller has not yet re-listed the piece.
The last of the new entries for the Chevrons and Diamonds uniform archive truly is a piece of history that, for obvious (to military baseball fans) reasons, garnered the interest and the considerable final bid amount. Aside from the articles published to this site, the 71st Infantry Division’s Red Circlers ball club was one of the legendary teams that reached the pinnacle of the European Theater of Operations (ETO) 100,000 players strong baseball league. Despite losing to the Overseas Invasion Service Expedition (OISE) All Stars in the championships, the squad from the 71st was noteworthy having a roster filled with talent from both the major and minor leagues. Adding to the collector interest is that both pieces in this uniform group are named (to two separate team members) along with rock-solid provenance. Rather than see this group lurking in the shadows of the often-times seedy breeding grounds of nefarious activities (known by the simpler name – eBay), this group was listed with a reputable auction house.