Category Archives: Uniforms

Deceptively Authentic: Always Practice Due Diligence Before Buying

In the past several months, Chevrons and Diamonds has fielded several inquiries from interested collectors, baseball and militaria collectors and potential buyers regarding a vintage military baseball uniform group that has been listed online for months with an asking price nearing $9000.00. 

After glancing at the listing’s photos, the jersey, trousers, and ball cap uniform grouping is quite remarkable in terms of condition and authenticity. The Rawlings manufacturer’s tags in both the jersey and trousers are what one would expect to see in a flannel set from the 1940s. The Special Services U.S. Army tags are also correct for the era. The dark blue (nearly black), six-panel ball cap with white soutache applied to the panel seams is also a fantastic piece, featuring Wilson’s own Special Services U.S. Army tag. There is nothing about the group that would be cause for concern. Issues lie within how the uniform group is presented to potential buyers. 

Buy the item, not the story. 
Collectors are often lulled into overspending or making foolish purchases for items that are presented with a fantastic narrative from the seller. Often, the stories are so incredibly concocted that even the most seasoned collectors set aside reason in order to make a dream acquisition.  

While it is quite easy to lambaste sellers who present wonderful stories, they are not necessarily the authors of the stories they associate with their items. However, for those who do concoct narratives and combine them with incredibly inflated prices, it is not a difficult step to call attention to nefarious activities. 

The current owner’s listing has the price discounted from $8995 which is more than 10-times what it was sold for in 2021 (eBay screenshot, August 2022).

WW2 U.S. 3rd Army Baseball Championship Nurnberg, Germany Soldiers Field August 7, 8, & 9th 1945 Uniform Jersey, Pants, & Cap of 76th Infantry 3rd Army Baseball Player Lawrence James McNeely #4 (b. 26 Oct 1919 – d. 7 June 2002) US Army Service from 28 Dec 1942 – 28 Jan 1946.  The uniform jersey is tagged ‘Rawlings St. Louis U.S. Army Special Services Size 42’ and remains in fine condition, the trousers are similarly tagged in size 34 also remain in fine condition, and the cap is tagged ‘Special Service U.S. Army Wilson’ (larger size) Lawrence “Larry” McNeely additionally played Minor League Baseball in 1941 for Sioux Falls and again in 1946 / 47 St. Cloud and 1948 St. Hyacinthe.  McNeely went on to study law and had a law practice until retirement.  Estate of Lawrence J. McNeely (SIC)”

eBay seller, tortugaacquisitions, August 25, 2022 

The uniform is authentic, but when was it used? 
Emblazoned across the front of the size-42 jersey in royal blue block letters between two equal length horizontal bars, “THIRD ARMY” is spelled out quite beautifully. Flanking each edge of the button placket are two thin black rayon soutache strands that encircle the standard open collar. The sleeves feature single strands of the same material placed approximately 3/4-inch from the cuff edges. Sewn to the jersey’s back is a single numeral, “4,” in royal blue, corresponding to the front lettering. The matching size-34 trousers lack adornments entirely.  

Scorecard lineups from the August 1945 Third Army Championship series held at Nuremberg Stadium (Chevrons and Diamonds Collection).

None of the pieces in the group are marked with the player’s name, Army laundry tag or anything that could assist in identifying the veteran who wore it. The seller implies, though never explicitly states, that the group came from a known professional ballplayer, Lawrence J. “Larry” McNeely, “Estate of Lawrence J. McNeely,” but fails to provide any provenance in the listing, which should be a red flag for potential buyers. Also provided with the listing images is a “borrowed” image of the Third Army Championship scorecard from our online library. The auction item’s description also includes sourced text from one of our articles describing the Third Army Championship Series games, appearing to many who have reached out to us to be an implied Chevrons and Diamonds authentication of the seller’s listing. 

Regardless of the price tag of the item, collectors must perform their due diligence prior to making a purchase. So far, many are taking steps to research this Third Army baseball uniform group before being drawn into a heavily overpriced group. One of the overarching questions regarding the authenticity of the auction listing posed to Chevrons and Diamonds focuses on the assertion that this group was worn for the Third Army Championship. 

WW2 U.S. 3rd Army Baseball Championship Nurnberg, Germany Soldiers Field August 7, 8, & 9th 1945 Uniform Jersey, Pants, & Cap of 76th Infantry 3rd Army Baseball Player Lawrence James McNeely #4” 

Regarding the 1945 Third Army Championship game between the 71st Infantry Division’s Red Circlers and the 76th Infantry Division’s Onaways, only the victorious team would go on to wear uniforms emblazoned with Third Army adornments in the 1945 GI World Series. Erroneously suggested by the seller, 76th ID player McNeely wore this uniform in the losing effort against the Red Circlers.  

Another issue with the seller’s listing resides in the false claim that the uniform dates to 1945. Unfortunately for the seller, and quite fortunate for potential buyers, a verified and named example of an actual 1945 Third Army Champions jersey exists and was sold through Goldin Auctions on January 29, 2017. The jersey and trousers, coincidently bearing the same Rawlings and Special Services U.S. Army tags, were worn by Red Circlers (and former St. Louis Cardinals) catcher, Herb Bremer. Both the jersey and trousers are named (the trousers are named to Red Circlers first baseman Milt Ticco, likely provided to Bremer during the GI World Series).

The 60th Infantry Division “Go Devils” sporting their “Third Army” uniforms following their clinching of the championship heading into the 1946 G.I. World Series. Identified players are: (back row) Durban, Cliff Ratliff, Bob Morgan, Joe Moresco, Jim Patterson, Bill Sharp, Jerry Weston, Floyd Gurney, Bill Kurey and George Zallie. In the second row are Fay Starr (third from left) and Carl Scheib (far right).

Some behind the scenes collector speculation surrounding the auction listing is that the uniform group might date to the following season, when some former major and minor league players were still serving a full year after the German surrender. While it certainly is an avenue worthy of exploration, this particular road leads to an abrupt end for two reasons. First, following Larry McNeely’s January, 1946 discharge from the Army, his professional baseball career was reinstated on February 8, 1946 as he resumed play with the class “C” Northern League’s St. Cloud Rox, which eliminates him from having worn the uniform that year. The second and more defining reason is that the 60th Infantry Division “Go-Devils” team, featuring former Philadelphia Athletics pitcher Carl Scheib (see: Pro Ball Players Still Filled Army Rosters in 1946: “Go Devils” G.I. World Series Champs), wore an entirely different Third Army championship uniform. 

In answering a frequent follow-up question as to the seller’s false usage assertion, the year that this grouping was worn is not specifically known. The immaculate condition of the material, including the apparent absence of dirt or grass stains, could indicate that the uniform was unused and not worn by any ballplayer. While post-war occupation duties continued for the U.S. Armed Forces, the Third Army was recalled back to the United States in 1947. Perhaps the veteran who owned this group was discharged following the Third Army’s transition back the States.  

Originally sold through Manion’s in 1992 
The seller’s inference that the uniform group originated in McNeely’s estate is a false claim. While we are unaware of how the group reached the current owner’s possession, we do know the person who owned it in May-June of 2021 when he had it listed at auction. That particular seller, “Stan” (we will not disclose his full identity), had also listed the group as the 1945 Third Army Champions.  

The 2021 listing showing the seller’s $875 listing price (he offered it at a considerable discount) though it was significantly overpriced (eBay screenshot, June 2021).

“This is unquestionably one of the RAREST and UNIQUE items I acquired in 25+ years of collecting:  A COMPLETE 3rd Army Baseball uniform, as worn during the Occupation of Germany following VE-Day!  I was lucky enough to be the successful bidder for the uniform in the late, great Manion’s International Auction back on September 26, 1992, almost thirty years ago! Since that time, it’s been carefully stored in a mothproof environment in my storage.  The 3rd Army “Red Circlers” of the 71st Infantry Division went on to win the “1945 GI World Series” in the sixth game at Soldier’s Field in Nuremberg, no doubt to the great satisfaction of General George S. Patton, Jr. Unfortunately, I was unable to locate a team roster to determine who wore number 4, so if anyone has access to that roster, I would appreciate hearing from you.   

The uniform is comprised of the following items:  

(1) A wool worsted jersey, number “4” on the back, size 42″ chest;  

(2) A pair of wool worsted “knicker” style baseball pants, size 34″ waist;  

(3) A wool worsted baseball cap, size 7-1/4 to 7-3/8; and  

(4) A pair of modern baseball “cleats”, size 10-11, which I wore during my play in American Legion baseball.  All three uniform items are labeled “Special Services U.S. Army” (see images).   

The jersey and pants were manufactured by Rawlings and are so labeled in the neck and waist band, respectively.  The cap was manufactured by Wilson Sports Equipment and is labeled in the leather sweatband. The actual measurements of the jersey lying flat are as follows: (1) Chest 22.5″ from armpit to armpit; (2) Short sleeves 9.25″; (3) Waist 23″; and Overall length 31″. The actual measurements of the pants are as follows: (1) Waist 34″; Inseam 24″; and Overall or “Outseam” length 33.5″.  The uniform will easily fit a man of 6′ and 180 pounds, perhaps heavier if slim at the waist.  The uniform is in VERY GOOD condition with minor soiling here and there and slight yellowing of the white wool, but nothing unattractive.  The cap still has strong dark blue color with a supple leather sweatband.”

eBay seller, stan****, May 28, 2021

Following a lengthy exchange of correspondence with the seller, he recognized that the uniform group he acquired from Manion’s in 1992 was from a later year following the 1946 season and corrected his listing to reflect the information we provided regarding the 1945 and 1946 teams and their respective uniforms. 

Upon seeing tortugaacquisitions’ listing, we contacted and provided the seller with the correct information along with a request for cessation of incorporating our content into the listing. Rather than responding or taking corrective action, the seller blocked our account, preventing the receipt of further communication from us. 

Semper Diligens 
It is unfortunate that individuals and businesses knowingly present false information to defraud buyers while garnering considerable, ill-gained profit. The motivations of tortugaacquisitions are entirely unknown to us and we will refrain from making accusations of fraud or intentionally misleading claims regarding this or any other listings by the seller. One of the primary objectives of Chevrons and Diamonds is to provide our readers with research data, photographic evidence and artifacts serving as a trusted, reliable and growing reference resource.

Forging Ahead: An Early 1950s Navy Flannel

On June 25, 1950, the Communist Korean People’s Army (KPA) headed south, crossing the border, the 38th parallel, invading the southern part of the Korean Peninsula in open warfare against the free people of the Republic of Korea and igniting what would be known as the Korean War. That same day, lying at anchor in Hong Kong harbor, the commanding officer of the Essex-class aircraft carrier USS Valley Forge (CVA-45) received orders to weigh anchor and set a course for Okinawa after a stop at Naval Station Subic Bay for replenishment. 

USS Valley Forge (CV-45) as she appeared during the Korean War (source: Naval History and Heritage Command)

Eight days after pulling up anchor in Hong Kong, the first carrier strikes of the Korean War flew from the flight deck of the Valley Forge. Multiple waves of naval aircraft were launched from the carrier against ground targets in Pyongyang, including a military airfield, rail yards and fuel depots. The Valley Forge had prop aircraft, including the WWII Navy and Marine Corps fighter Vought F4U Corsair and the Douglas A-1 Skyraider that debuted following the end of that war. Another historic aspect of these first strikes was the first use of jet fighter aircraft as Valley Forge’s Grumman FPF Panthers downed Soviet-made Yakovlev Yak-9 fighters attempting to intercept the strikes. 

USS Valley Forge remained on station for the next few months. The United States began landing troops at Inchon in late September with the ship’s aircraft providing cover. Valley Forge concluded her first wartime deployment and departed Korean waters in late November, having conducted more than 5,000 combat sorties. By the spring of 1953, USS Valley Forge was a veteran of four combat tours during the Korean War. 

This ten-minute film, “A Fighting Lady Speaks,” documents USS Valley Forge’s Korean War service.

During arduous deployments, the intensity of a combat-focused operational pace without breaks can be a detriment for warship crews. Recreation is a requirement for crews to maintain focus and to keep skills sharp. Without intervals of rest and recreation, the forces of a ship can be vulnerable to complacency and accidents. During World War II, baseball was at its zenith in popularity both in the public and military spheres. Bases, units, ships and squadrons fielded teams whose rosters were often dotted with former professionals ranging from minor to major leaguers. Ships were not as fortunate as Navy shore commands in having multiple former pros in their ranks. This tended to level the playing field among seagoing commands. 

World War II Marine Corps veteran fighter pilot and New York Yankees second baseman Jerry Coleman flew 63 combat missions during the Korean War (Chevrons and Diamonds Collection).

During the Korean War, the selective service pulled many ballplayers into the armed forces, though few of those draftees made it onto shipboard crews. In addition, select WWII veteran baseball players (such as Marine Corps fighter pilots Ted Williams and Jerry Coleman) who were still in the military reserve were activated. Hundreds of ballplayers served during the Korean War, compared to nearly 5,000 during the previous war. At present, 24 players are known to have lost their lives in the service during the Korean War. Eighteen were either killed in action or died of wounds.  

With one of the three New York major league teams in each World Series from 1950 through 1958 (the relocated Los Angeles Dodgers defeated the White Sox to close out the decade), the increased television audiences and the continued integration of the sport, the game of baseball was increasing in popularity. Though force levels were diminutive during the Korean War by comparison to manning during WWII, baseball was still the dominant sport in the military within organized leagues and ad hoc recreation. 

This USS Valley Forge (CV-45) baseball flannel uniform was used by the ship’s team during the early 1950s is shown here with our 1949-dated U.S.-stamped Bobby Doerr signature glove and 1964 model R43 Yogi Berra Naval Academy bat (Chevrons and Diamonds Collection).

When a colleague informed us of an available item of interest, it was a shock when we saw what was being offered. Though this group was not as historically awe-inspiring as some of the flannels in our collection, seeing the jersey and trouser set left us nearly frantic as we began to make acquisition arrangements. The simplistic road gray flannel is adorned with a subtle, four-piece emblem stitched to the jersey’s left breast. Spelling out the ship’s name, “Valley Forge,” the “V” and “F” are two-pie, red-over-navy athletic felt letters while the script lettering completing the wordmarks is chain stitched in dark navy directly onto the flannel. The back is adorned with “25” in the same two-color athletic felt as on the jersey’s front. Adorning the jersey’s sleeves and the out-seam of the trousers is a navy-red-navy rayon band of soutache. 

The flannel set is excellent. There is some visible wear, such as the back numerals showing signs of separation. Visible on the legs and seat of the trousers are field stains with a small hole. All the buttons are present and the zipper on the jersey functions flawlessly. 

Captured from a page of the 1952-56 USS Valley Forge cruise book, this photo shows the uniform worn by two unidentified ballplayers (source: USS Valley Forge CV-45 cruise book)
Page 52 of the Valley Forge’s 1952-56 book spotlights the ship’s athletics including baseball.

Photos in the corresponding USS Valley Forge cruise book show both the home flannel baseball uniform (with the ship’s name spelled out in an arc across the chest) and an image of players wearing the road uniform. 

The USS Valley Forge was authorized by Congress in June, 1943 and was the 24th of 26 Essex class aircraft carriers. Hull CV-37 was originally destined to carry the Valley Forge name; however, following the loss of the USS Princeton (CVL-23) during the battle of Leyte Gulf on October 24, 1944, the hull was renamed to honor the lost carrier. USS Valley Forge was christened more than two months after VJ–Day on November 5, 1945 and commissioned a year later. It served for more than 23 years. 

With service in both the Korean and Vietnam Wars, Valley Forge earned eight battle stars. While four of her sisters (Yorktown, Intrepid, Hornet and Lexington) survive and presently serve as museum ships, groups were unsuccessful in raising funds to preserve Valley Forge for such service. The retired carrier was sold for scrap in 1971. 
 


Originally in the collection of a veteran of the Valley Forge, this uniform was passed on to our colleague by the son of the veteran, who stated that his father did not play baseball. He was uncertain of the reason his father had the flannels in his possession. Regardless of the associated narrative, the group is a fantastic addition to the Chevrons and Diamonds baseball uniform collection.  

“Lucky Phoenix” – Pearl Harbor Survivor

Barely three years old in 1941, the Brooklyn-class light cruiser USS Phoenix (CL-46) was homeported in San Pedro, California, and operated in the Pacific between Hawaii and the west coast of the United States. With the fires of war raging in the Western Pacific and Europe, the U.S. Navy was amid a build-up of both manpower and equipment and was conducting exercises to prepare for war in case the forces of Japan demonstrated aggression against American interests. USS Phoenix, since her commissioning in October, 1938, was heavily involved in training operations and fleet exercises, with considerable time at sea. 

Months before President Roosevelt signed the executive order enacting the peacetime Selective Service Act, Vincent Burnell Gunderson enlisted into the United States Navy in Chicago, Illinois, on July 10, 1940. Upon completion of training at Great Lakes Naval Training Station north of Chicago, Apprentice Seaman Gunderson was transferred to the USS Phoenix, reporting aboard on October 5, 1940, soon after the ship returned from her summer South American goodwill cruise. 

In the Far East, Japanese forces had a stranglehold on China, with nearly 30 divisions including artillery, cavalry and armored units expanding their grip. In addition, the Imperial Japanese Navy was an intimidating presence as it vied for control over shipping lanes. German raiders were operating in the Western Pacific, opportunistically seizing merchant vessels and crews, making the situation on the high seas and waters surrounding American-held territories tenuous. The War Department leadership began to bolster and reinforce military bases in the Pacific and increase the fleet presence at Pearl Harbor, shifting ships from the U.S. West Coast. 

The Hawaiian Islands in the 1930s and through 1941 were truly an oasis. Bases were spread throughout Oahu and the outlying islands and American service members found an idyllic setting while serving, with a year-round pleasant tropical climate, beautiful beaches and plenty of leisure activities to occupy off-duty hours. Baseball was king of sports activities to play or to watch and more than 100,000 GIs were among the territory’s population. 

Our USS Phoenix baseball flannel was in rough condition and heavily soiled when we acquired it along with Fire Controlman 2/c Gunderson’s service uniforms (Chevrons and Diamonds Collection).

In the spring of 1941, the USS Phoenix was operating out of Pearl Harbor and her baseball team saw sporadic action against Oahu-based service teams. Seaman 2/c Gunderson, a member of the Phoenix roster, likely participated in games on the island. 

On Sunday, March 31, 1941, the USS Phoenix ball club was beaten, 6-4, by the Primo Beer nine, a team slated to enter the Oahu National League. Hal Crider and Sahoffer were the top hitters for Phoenix while the Primo batters stroked 11 hits off pitcher “Yank” Yonick. Phoenix batsmen touched Primo hurlers Frank Felles and Eddie Bahr for nine safeties in the loss. The 10-inning game was played at a ballpark in Waikiki near the old boat house. 

“The sailors are touted as being big-timers,” The Honolulu Advertiser wrote of the USS Phoenix ball club as they were set to take on the 21st Infantry “Gimlets” on Friday, May 2, 1941. On Friday, May 10, 1941, Fort Kamehameha defeated USS Phoenix, 6-3, in a 6-inning contest that was the second game of a double-header for the “Kams.” The Gimlets were the eventual champions of the 21st Infantry League for the season. 

The Phoenix battery of starting pitcher Joe Simone and backstop Hal Crider held the USS Richmond (CL-9) “Ramblers” to a single run on two hits in a 3-1 victory. USS Phoenix batters tallied three runs on six hits with Sandman and Lindsey each accounted for a pair of hits. Phoenix scored all three runs in the first and held Richmond scoreless until the fifth when a walk, a stolen base and a hit led to their lone run in their Thursday, May 30, 1941, game. By that summer, the Ramblers were out in front of Hawaii’s cruiser league and would advance to the Honolulu League, a longstanding, top-level circuit on Oahu. 

Departing Pearl Harbor on September, the Phoenix was tasked to escort the USS Hugh L. Scott (AP-43) as she transported more than 1,100 men consisting of troops from the 1st Battalion, 200th Coast Artillery and 14th Bomb Squadron and other replacements to Manila. Leaving Manila Bay, the Phoenix provided escort to the Cimarron-class oiler, USS Guadalupe (AO-32) to Pearl Harbor.  

We acquired two service dress blue uniforms and one undress blue uniform (the flap jumper flap absent white piping) along with Gunderson’s USS Phoenix baseball jersey (Chevrons and Diamonds Collection).

The Sunday routine aboard a ship at anchor in 1941 was at a slow pace. The men who were in the duty rotation stood watches, prepared morning chow and did normal upkeep. Following breakfast and the changing of the watch, preparations were made for raising the colors, with men positioned on the ship’s stern and bow readying the Ensign and Union Jack at their respective staffs. Anchored northeast of Ford Island, the men of the USS Phoenix were awaiting the signal to smartly raise each flag when planes bearing rising sun markings descended and bore down on the central tower on Ford Island, opening fire. A seemingly endless run of attacking aircraft followed suit and commenced attacks on the ships moored along the east shore of Ford Island known as Battleship Row.  

Gunderson, a non-rated seaman, was working that morning to finish his application for acceptance into the Naval Academy. “It never got there,” he told the Palm Beach Post December 2016. “Our boats were in the davits. Our plane was on the catapult. Our awnings were struck over the main deck.” 

“We were 100 percent startled,” Gunderson commented about the beginning of the attack. He thought the approaching aircraft were part of U.S. maneuvers until he saw the Japanese markings on the wings.  

 The USS Phoenix crew, ahead of the call for general quarters, rushed to their battle stations to man their guns and take defensive actions against the obvious enemy attack. “We never got any word to do anything,” Gunderson said. “Our ammunition was all below.”  

Her machine gunners and anti-aircraft and main battery gun crews worked tirelessly loading, training, aiming at and firing upon enemy bombers and fighters. The melee of anti-aircraft fire from ship and shore batteries left a shroud of doubt surrounding the USS Phoenix gun crews as to their effectiveness against the attackers. After the fight was over, her gun crews had expended 353 rounds of 5-inch, 35 3-inch, and 4,500 .50 cal. Rounds. Following Rear Admiral Leary’s orders, the Phoenix pulled up anchor and got underway at 11:15, three hours and 20 minutes after the attack began. The ship and her crew escaped completely unharmed. 

The USS Phoenix’s operational pace throughout the war was such that little time was afforded for the ship’s baseball team to play. 

On display – One of Gunderson’s dress blue jumpers, his flat hat (showing the USS Phoenix tally) and his baseball jersey were showcased in one of our public displays this past summer (Chevrons and Diamonds Collection).

Gunderson, born June 27, 1922, in Beloit, Wisconsin, lived in Lake Worth, Florida, after his 1946 discharge from the Navy. He had served his entire enlistment aboard the Phoenix, separating as a fire controlman second class on July 1. Ninety-seven-year-old Vincent Burnell Gunderson passed away on the 78th anniversary of the Pearl Harbor attack, December 7, 2019. 

Gunderson’s early 1940s Wilson flannel jersey from the USS Phoenix, along with three of his dress blue uniforms and a flat hat with the USS Phoenix tally, were added to our collection in the spring of 2020 (see: Remembering Pearl Harbor and the Game).  

‘Spot’ a 20? Researching a Wartime Flannel

The 20th Regiment jersey as it was found in an antiques store (photo courtesy of Terry Aiken).

The navy blue athletic flannel lettering spelled out “20th REGT” on the chest of the gray flannel jersey, was intriguing and piqued our interest. The flannel had been shared in a social media post in a baseball memorabilia collectors’ group that was brought to our attention by a colleague prompting us to research what could be discerned from the accompanying photos. The item was quite obviously a wartime baseball flannel jersey and the person who shared photos of his find discovered the artifact in an antiques store. “I found this today in Missouri. It is an old military baseball jersey,” the accompanying text stated. “Is it worth $45?” he asked.

The lettering on the front of the jersey indicated that the player that wore it was an Army veteran and was potentially assigned to the 20th Regiment. Initial inclinations would lead nearly anyone armed with a basic understanding of Army structure to assume that this was an infantry regiment. Prudence dictates that one must not make assumptions or forgo proper due diligence in determining the identity of the unit and age of the artifact.

Men of the 20th Infantry Regiment shown at their Field Day was held on Friday, March 23, 1945 on Luzon (Chevrons and Diamonds Collection).

We were already familiar with the 20th Infantry Regiment due to a 2018 acquisition of a veteran’s collection of baseball photos that captured his unit playing baseball on New Guinea and Luzon during the war (see Following the Horrors of Battle in the Pacific, Baseball was a Welcomed Respite). Known as “Sykes Regulars,” the 20th Infantry Regiment, attached to the Sixth Infantry Division, saw some of the most intense fighting of World War II. With 219 consecutive days of combat leading up to April 15, 1945, on the Philippine Island of Luzon, the Sykes Regulars played baseball after the end of the fighting. Some members of the 20th played baseball on New Guinea as well.

Despite the obvious identity, questions remained. The jersey could have been from another branch such an artillery, armored or engineer regiment but it could also have been from a state National Guard unit.  Determining the age of the jersey would be a bit less of a challenge regardless of the absence of a useful manufacturer’s label.

Several baseball collectors responded to the question as to its value and the feedback unanimously confirmed the potential buyer’s questions. A few of the respondents added that the asking price was reasonable enough that they would buy the jersey. After commenting on the post and providing some information regarding the 20th Infantry Regiment, we reached out directly (offline) to Mr. Terry Akin, the person who made the social media post, and began corresponding to determine if there was any additional information that accompanied the jersey.

At that time, the 20th Regiment jersey, which was originally accompanied with matching trousers, was still for sale at the antiques shop as a single item. Unfortunately, another customer purchased the trousers. Our colleague was planning to return to purchase the jersey and to resell the piece. After we introduced him to Chevrons and Diamonds and our mission, research and education efforts, he wanted to acquire the jersey and, much to our surprise and gratitude, donate it to our collection, citing his own passion for the game and career in the Army as reasons to assist us.

Despite signs of heavy use, the 20th Regiment jersey is in good condition (Chevrons and Diamonds Collection).

With the jersey in hand, we assessed its condition to determine the best route for care before adding the piece to the collection. Inspecting it for evidence of pests along with any soiling or troubled areas that would need attention was a priority. Perhaps one of the most disastrous actions would have been to introduce an infestation of pest eggs such as from silverfish, carpet beetles and moths. Their appetite for natural wool fibers can exact irreparable damage upon a historic vintage jersey in just a few days. With the inspection for pests completed, a check was performed on all the stitching in the seams, the soutache and the lettering and numbers to determine the condition of the threads. It would have been unfortunate to damage the jersey by displaying it on a mannequin torso. Visual examination of the base wool material helped to determine if cleaning was required to prevent fiber decay and erosion caused by fine particles of soil embedded in the natural fibers.

With the condition assessment completed and showing no glaring issues, documenting the jersey’s design, pattern, materials, labels, and any other identifying traits served to assist in the identification and dating of the piece. Another crucial step when introducing a newly acquired artifact is to photo document it to establish a baseline to assess decay and deterioration for intervention and subsequent corrective action.

The neckline soutache has a clean intersection with the overlapping button placket. The gray plastic cat-eye two-hole convex buttons are clearly visible (Chevrons and Diamonds Collection).

With many hours of research already completed, we are still unsure as to the identity of the unit team on which our 20th Regiment Jersey was used. However, having determined the garment’s age based upon the pattern and features of the flannel, it is our assessment that it dates from 1940 to 1942. The details of the 20th Regiment jersey are available for a closer look in our Archive of Military Baseball Uniforms.

The addition of this piece to our growing collection of military flannels serves to preserve armed forces baseball history, will be a centerpiece of the Chevrons and Diamonds Collection and will serve as a visual tool to educate our virtual and in-person guests. We and our visitors are grateful to Mr. Akin for his generous donation.

Familiar (Navy) Flannel

As challenging as 2020 has been for nearly everyone around the globe, the year has brought to the surface and thus provided us with opportunities to acquire some of the most incredible artifacts for the Chevrons and Diamonds Collection. As much as we enjoy sourcing treasures such as original scorecards, programs, type-1 vintage photographs and equipment, the most sought-after items that are truly cause for excitement are service team flannels.

As the temperatures cool and the leaves begin to change now that autumn is upon us, we are still surprised by the slew of jerseys and uniforms that we were able to add to our collection. In what we would consider a “good year” of treasure hunting, we might be able to acquire more than one baseball jersey or uniform. However, amid the viral, economic and political difficulties, we managed to acquire a quartet of vintage flannel baseball jerseys, one of which includes trousers. Before this year, our collection had been dominated by the presence of jerseys made for and used by the U.S. Marine Corps.

With the arrival of Fire Controlman 2/c Gunderson’s USS Phoenix uniform group (see: Remembering Pearl Harbor and the Game) along with the unnamed USS Timbalier jersey (see: Striking the Drum: a Mid-1940s Jersey from the USS Timbalier), our Navy baseball uniform collection doubled. However, 2020 appears to be the year for Navy jerseys as we were able to locate a third flannel.

During World War II, perhaps the most common uniform design aspect for Navy baseball flannels (at least for shore-based teams) was an unembellished flannel (in white, gray or pinstripes) with simple, athletic felt, block letters that simply spelled out “N A V Y” in an arc across the upper chest area. For most of those uniforms, the font used for the athletic felt lettering was slender and lacked serifs or flourish, thus providing a simplistic appearance.

The simple Navy baseball uniform jerseys were used nearly from the beginning of the war, as we have seen with the Navy Pre-Flight schools at the Universities of North Carolina, Iowa, Georgia and St. Mary’s College (in Moraga, California), with serif lettering that included a three-dimensional” appearance with multiple layers of stitched athletic felt. Throughout domestic naval training bases, the lettering on the jerseys often differed. In some instances, script lettering or block lettering with serifs could be seen. On Oahu in the Hawaiian Islands, the uniforms, while maintaining the block letters, deviated from the traditional home-white and away-gray combinations, opting instead for complete pinstriped flannels or with navy blue raglan sleeves with the slender and simple (non-serif) lettering in an arc across the chest.

Since our adventure in military baseball research and collecting commenced more than a decade ago, the search for a Navy-specific jersey or uniform has been ongoing. Our acquisition of a 1943 gray and red Marine uniform drew our attention to seeking other vintage service team jerseys. The closest we came to locating a Navy jersey or uniform occurred towards the end of 2018 when a listing for a gray wool flannel item surfaced at auction. In a departure from the aforementioned more common lettering style, the athletic felt appliques were of the blocked variety with serifs (similar to a bold Times Roman font) which resembled that of the Navy Pre-Flight baseball uniforms but featured a single layer of material. After eight years, a World War II-era Navy jersey had finally arrived.

The 1943 team of Naval Air Station at Corpus Christi, Texas is right up in front in the Naval Air Training Center circuit having taken eight of its first ten games. Pictured are Mascot Roy Brown, front; Ensign Dan Menendez, Ensign Don Watts, Lt.-Comdr. Frank Lane, LTjg Boyd B. SoRelle and Ezra Pat Mac McClothin, first row; Ensign Walt Bietila, Ensign Dave Bechtol, W. J. Goodman, J. Roland and J. Penfold, second row, and Jack Pearson, Dam Mamula, Bob Cowsar, Ed Schueren, Jim Picciano and Pat McCarthy, back row (Chevrons and Diamonds Collection).

Unfortunately, due to financial challenges, there was no possibility of acquiring this jersey. We watched the auction all the way to the end. The jersey sold the week before Thanksgiving for well above what we would normally value an unnamed, unidentified one. Rather than to allow this jersey to change hands and be forgotten, we captured the details and added a page to the Chevrons and Diamonds Archive of Military Baseball Uniforms for historical reference. In the near 21 months since this jersey sold, we had yet to find a similar piece.

In a year filled with incredible finds, it is unfathomable that another WWII naval jersey would not only appear in the marketplace but would fall into our hands.

Fresh from the seller, the 1943-44 NAVY jersey is in need of a cleaning, similar to what we did for our USS Timbalier and USS Phoenix flannels (Chevrons and Diamonds Photo).

The front of the jersey shows a lot of pilling that is most-likely due to excessive machine-wash laundering. The athletic felt lettering is arched between the second and third buttons. The upper left extension of the “V” overlays the left soutache on the button placket (Chevrons and Diamonds Photo).

A new listing appeared in an online auction (that included the option to submit an offer) for a WWII-era Navy jersey. This artifact, a gray flannel (away) jersey with blocked serif lettering affixed to the chest, was trimmed in a single, thin line of blue soutache surrounding the sleeve cuff and around the collar, extending down the button placket. What was unique about this jersey was that the soutache on the placket extended down to just above the third button (from the top), stopping well short of what is seen on many jerseys of the period. Another feature that helped in dating the jersey to the early 1940s was the sun collar surrounding the neck. Inside the collar was a simple manufacturer’s label (Lowe & Campbell Athletic Goods) that included the size (42) incorporated into the same tag. Aside from typical staining befitting a used, 75+ year-old textile, the only blemish was a missing button at the bottom of the placket.

After our submitted offer was accepted and the package arrived a few days later, the familiarity of this particular jersey began to settle in. In 2019, a WWII vintage photo of a Navy baseball team surfaced. The players were seen dressed in their flannel uniforms with a lettering style similar to our recent arrival. Unlike the layered lettering of the Pre-Flight uniforms, the jerseys in the photograph were very similar to that of our new acquisition. Further examination of the photograph revealed subtle differences, such as the soutache around the collar (two lines versus our single line), on the placket (extending down below the belt-line) and the positioning on the sleeve cuffs (at the sleeve’s edge instead of 1” back from the edge).

The team in the aforementioned photo was that of Corpus Christi Naval Air Station in 1943, the roster of which consisted of naval aviation cadets who were predominantly former professional ballplayers. Though it is similar to the Corpus Christi uniform, our jersey did not originate from this team (at least not from 1943), judging by the photograph; but the ambiguous familiarity remained within our memory. This jersey was strangely more familiar to us than we could comprehend.

As our research continued (including scouring our extensive vintage photograph library), we paused to  made a quick check of our military baseball uniform archive only to discover that we had just acquired the very jersey that we were not in position to obtain nearly two years earlier. It seems that when collectors are persistent and patient in their endeavors and interests, missed or lost opportunities sometimes return and artifacts become available once again. While we have yet to uncover a specific unit or team to connect this jersey to, we are confident that with both patience and perseverance we will be able to identify which Navy team used this jersey design.

 

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