Judging by the traffic flow through this site, one of Chevrons and Diamonds most popular features for readers is the Archive of Military Baseball Uniforms. Since it was established with a dozen jerseys and uniforms (including those in our own collection), it has grown tremendously as we add pieces that surface (and, hopefully, we catch them when they are listed), capturing photos and researching their designs, features and the associated assertions or provenance regarding their history. As of publication of this article, there are currently 19 items, with at least one queued up to add to the line-up. It should be prefaced that the critical commentaries regarding the pricing employ a measure of supposition and assumption (coupled with a small dose of sarcasm) while not taking anything away from the sellers’ rights to ask what they deem necessary.
In the last two weeks, we have observed three noteworthy jerseys listed at (online) auctions and there is a noticeable, if not just a negative trend with the sellers’ valuations. In September of this years, that upward trend of listing prices with the spate of wartime and mid-century Marines jerseys was noted with our article, Marines Baseball: The Many. The Pricey. – all of those jerseys remain unsold and relisted week after week. In the past decade, jerseys used by the Marines are the overwhelmingly market-dominant artifacts within this arena which causes anything different to stand out.
Aside from the scarcity of baseball uniforms from the U.S. Army Air Forces (or its predecessor, the U.S. Army Air Corps), U.S. Navy pieces are a rare breed among wartime flannels. Two weeks ago, as an auction for a WWII Navy jersey was nearing its closing, the bidding drove the price higher from its $9.99 opening bid amount. After a ten-day run, the 21st and winning bid of $204.02 was a reasonable and sensible, considering the infrequency that any vintage Navy jerseys come to market. Among collectors in genre, the Navy jerseys that are on their wish lists are those that were used in the Pre-flight schools, used by the Norfolk area teams in 1942 to early 1943 and those that were on the Hawaiian and Pacific Island diamonds in late 1943 to late 1945. The Navy flannel in the recent listing was clearly not from any of these teams or games. Granted, the chances that one of those jerseys of having been game worn and used by a major leaguer are very good, but only one of them has surfaced in the last decade.
Reminiscent of the ridiculous asking prices of the aforementioned Marine Corps jerseys, not wanting them to be uniquely or alone in that sphere of insanity, the next two additions to the Chevrons and Diamonds archive, while they are quite fantastic pieces that would be fantastic additions to a military baseball collection, they are priced in a sphere well above reality. Both pieces were used by army personnel. one domestically and the other overseas, the sellers are either gouging and seeking to wait countless months, renewing their auctions repeatedly after the passage of each six-day segment without a bite – or – they simply do not understand the value of these items. Bear in mind that in recent months, there have been two 1940s (WWII-era) major league jerseys sold at auction, both worn by unknown players and have sold in the neighborhood of $200-$250. It is appropriate that these two jerseys, one from WWII and the other from the early 1950s and both from unknown players (most likely just average “Joes”) should be valued in the $75-100 range, when correctly compared with historic major league pieces.
Of the two Army jersey listings, one from the joint Army and USAF bases at Wiesbaden, Germany, is incorrectly listed as a World War II era piece. Since the War ended in 1945 and the base, a captured and converted Third Reich military facility, effectively began functioning as a U.S. base in 1946. While one might consider this fact a mere technicality, if the jersey was used in that or the immediately subsequent years, the features of the jersey itself give away the actual era (the 1950s). Listing the jersey as a buy-it-now with the price, $2 shy of $300, the seller is trolling for an ill-informed buyer (a sucker) who will bite on the fantastic design and excellent condition of the flannel. However, the seller left the door cracked for more astute buyers, indicating that a best offer will be accepted. Doubts remain as to the reasonable nature of an offer that would be deemed acceptable by the seller. Despite all of the pricing discussion, the jersey itself is a fantastic example of post-war design and the influence of the major leagues cascading down to the trenches of the military game. By the start of the 1955 season, the Dodgers was established as the dominant National League franchise, appearing in (and losing) five World Series since the end of WWII. The Wiesbaden Flyers jersey borrows many elements of Brooklyn’s uniform styling from this era, making it quite aesthetically appealing, though not for $298.00. As of publishing this article, the overpriced Wiesbaden jersey remains available.
Not to be outdone by mere pretenders, another seller recently listed a vintage, WWII-era jersey that, aside from the unrealistic market expectations, is an otherwise fantastic piece. Listed with a single purchase option, the $599.99 (at least one needn’t spend a full $600 on sale price! The buyer gets to keep that $0.01 in his or her bank accounts…save for the $12.90 shipping charge) is beyond ridiculous and has edged to the realm of insanity. The road gray flannel clearly dates from the 1940s and, based upon the design, its age places it more from the World War II-period. The two-color block lettering that presents the base-name (Fort Lewis) in an arc across the chest is stylistically representative of what can be seen in most World War II uniforms. Other features of the jersey includes the vintage U.S. Army logo patch on the sleeve and the chain stitching across the back which might be the basis for the seller’s exorbitant selling price. Rather than having a game-worn jersey from a player, for a penny under $600, one can acquire a jersey worn by the most legendary figure from the Fort Lewis baseball team; its mascot. The short window of time that this jersey was available has expired and the seller has not yet re-listed the piece.
The last of the new entries for the Chevrons and Diamonds uniform archive truly is a piece of history that, for obvious (to military baseball fans) reasons, garnered the interest and the considerable final bid amount. Aside from the articles published to this site, the 71st Infantry Division’s Red Circlers ball club was one of the legendary teams that reached the pinnacle of the European Theater of Operations (ETO) 100,000 players strong baseball league. Despite losing to the Overseas Invasion Service Expedition (OISE) All Stars in the championships, the squad from the 71st was noteworthy having a roster filled with talent from both the major and minor leagues. Adding to the collector interest is that both pieces in this uniform group are named (to two separate team members) along with rock-solid provenance. Rather than see this group lurking in the shadows of the often-times seedy breeding grounds of nefarious activities (known by the simpler name – eBay), this group was listed with a reputable auction house.
Brick walls. Dead ends. Regardless of the term one employs to describe fruitless research, the end result will always be disappointment.
A while ago, I located a fantastic jersey for a very reasonable price and despite the cursory research and due diligence not yielding specific results, I moved ahead with making a bid to purchase the artifact. What initially drew my attention to this jersey was that it was a departure from my norm in terms of the armed forces branches that were already represented within my collection (which, at the time, consisted of one Navy, two Army and three Marines baseball uniforms or jerseys). In nearly ten years of actively searching for military baseball items, I hadn’t yet seen anything from the Army Air Forces (or Air Corps).
The online listing showed a rather simple, road gray wool flannel jersey with thin black soutache on the placket, around the collar and located about one inch from the edge of each sleeve. What sets this jersey apart from others is the the application of the lettering. Spelling out “BOLLING FIELD” are athletic felt, two color (gold over navy blue), large block characters. Each letter consists of a gold piece of felt centered over a larger one of blue felt with color-matched stitching that give a illusion of three-dimensional appearance. The careful placement of the “E” (in FIELD) ensured that the button hole alignment wouldn’t interfere with a tasteful alignment of the team name.
On the left sleeve, a two-piece athletic felt (similar to the lettering) winged-propeller emblem, complete with accenting embroidery (adding feathers to the wing and a baseball at the center of the prop) denoting the Air Forces mission of the base. The back of the jersey is plain and without numerals. The style of the jersey and the overall design is representative of those from the early 1940s which coincides with the what the seller described as being a World War II baseball jersey.
Attempting to determine the age of the jersey or when it was made isn’t necessarily an easy task however there isn’t really anything substantive that can be used to pinpoint the age. The team name provides an era (1918-1948) when the base existed as an airfield (rather than an Air Force Base following the establishment of the U.S. Air Force). Bolling Field was established after the Defense Department’s property was divided between the army and the navy for each branch’s aviation operations in the Washington D.C. area. Named for Ranar C. Bolling, a colonel who, having been recently appointed (by General Pershing) as the chief of air service for II Corps when he was killed (on March 26, 1918), during Operation Michael while he was scouting in the early days of the offensive. A thirty-year window of age possibilities hardly provided me with specificity so I had to look at the jersey’s other elements.
A commonality among the majority of the military jerseys that I have seen and certainly within my collection is the absence of manufacturer’s tags. Most of the uniforms and jerseys worn by service-member ball players have just a lone size tag. the Bolling jersey has a tag that until I acquired this jersey, I had not seen before.
If the jersey was made by Spalding or Goldsmith, the tag would be very useful in determining the age (see: Early Baseball Uniforms Manufacturer Tags Database: 1890 – 1942). These two manufacturers employed a measure of consistency (even as the logo changed, it did so in specific periods) over the course of manufacturing an immeasurable volume of baseball uniforms for professional and amateur teams. However, the manufacturer of the Bolling jersey, Lowe & Campbell, has a more murky history in terms of label usage and available, pinpoint-dated examples to draw comparisons. I was able to find a handful of L & C label examples but when attempting to use them as a basis for dating, there is considerable challenge, especially considering the company’s history.
Lowe and Campbell (L&C) was founded in Kansas City, Missouri in 1912 by George C. Lowe and Keedy Campbell during a period of massive growth in the sporting goods industry that was already being dominated by companies (Spalding, Rawlings and Wilson) that, today remain the leading manufacturers and suppliers of sports equipment. L&C’s early years in the industry found their principle customers in schools, colleges and universities and within the the realm of athletic teams sponsored by private industry. Throughout their first decade, the company experience growth, opening up offices throughout the Midwest but by the early 1930s, had become a target of one of the larger sporting goods giants who were seeking to rapidly expand into markets via acquisitions, as was the common practice, rather than expending effort and resources to develop into these areas. Wilson Sporting Goods entered into a merger agreement with L & C in 1931, but rather than to absorb the smaller company, Wilson positioned themselves as the wholesale supplier and retained their acquisition, L&C became a division of the giant as retailers of their products.
Maintaining this corporate alignment well into the next few decades, Wilson expanded the L&C offices into new markets and continued to produce products that carried the company’s logos. The catalogs throughout this era reveal that Lowe and Campbell expanded their product lines to include a greater variety of sport. As with the practices of many sporting goods retailers, their product offerings were predominantly manufactured by different sporting good companies with L&C adding their own tags and company markings. Even prior to the merger, Lowe and Campbell sold re-branded products supplied by manufacturers such as Hillerich and Bradsby, the makers of Louisville Slugger bats.
“After the merger the Lowe & Campbell brand of baseball bats disappear from the catalogs. Wilson baseball bats are added to the catalog by 1940, but they continue to sell Louisville Slugger bats, which dominate the catalogs. Wilson continued to manufacture baseball gloves under the private Branded Lowe & Campbell name. Because of the lack of catalog information it is not clear when Louisville Slugger began to make the Lowe & Campbell brand of baseball bats They do appear in the 1922 Lowe & Campbell catalog along side Louisville Slugger.” – KeyMan Collectibles
Following World War II, Wilson’s growth had continued as they acquired additional small sporting goods companies. Lowe and Campbell’s retail operation was eliminated as they were transformed into a wholesale operation their parent, Wilson functioning as both the manufacturer and wholesaler. The shift away from retail diminished the L&C brand and by 1960, Wilson eliminated it all together, shuttering the division and even closing down the Kansas City facility where Lowe and Campbell began.
Today, the remnants of the sporting goods brand exist via collectors who preserve the artifacts that produced and sold by Lowe and Campbell. However, a re-birth of the L&C brand is in process and the owner, Thomas Martin, whom acquired the brand, shared with me (via the company’s Facebook page) that Lowe and Campbell‘s 2018 fall launch will be headlined with American manufactured sports apparel.
Attempting to chronologically trace the progression of the company’s label history seems to be a futile attempt, especially in determining the of date the Bolling Field jersey. I found various (dates known) L&C branded garments and checked the labels in an effort to piece together a timeline and was unsuccessful at narrowing down transitional patterns.
Desiring to tap into the expertise of the new owner of the Lowe and Campbell brand, I asked Thomas Martin about the logos and tags, sharing some of the samples (shown above) in an effort to gain some insight. “No one,” Martin stated, “kept historical dated records of the brand,” but, in his experience with the vintage garments themselves, is able to determine the age, having seen countless products that were made and sold by Lowe and Campbell during the company’s first incarnation. Mr. Martin’s assessment of the label in the Bolling jersey was that it dated from the 1930s, “L&C only used two logos,” Martin wrote, “the one you have was used in the 30’s.” Martin discussed the logo change as a result of being acquired (in 1931 by Wilson). Garments made by the company in the 1940s began to receive a new logo (see the two bottom-right examples, above) on their tags.
My next research step will be to search through newspaper archives from WWII in the Washington D.C. area seeking any box scores or news articles regarding the Bolling Field team’s game-play. My hope is that the Army Air Force public relations personnel was as open in terms of publicizing the competitiveness of their base team. In my estimation, this team had to have competed against other service teams within the region including the Norfolk Naval Training Station and Norfolk Naval Air Station teams. The only baseball-specific lead (with a possible connection) that I have discovered regarding Bolling centers on Hank Greenberg.
In Hank Greenberg: The Hero of Heroes, author John Rosengren states, “A friend of Hank’s, Sam Edelman, wrote on his behalf to have Hank promoted to the rank of captain and assigned as an athletic director in the Air Corps (sic) at Bolling Field. Two brigadier generals carried the request to the War Department, lobbying for the educational qualifications (for an officer’s commission) to be waived for Greenberg. The Adjutant General denied the request on the grounds that it was ‘contrary to the policies of the Secretary of War.'” No mention is made (within the book) regarding Sergeant Greenberg’s ball-playing at Bolling Field. However, according to Rosengren, Greenberg would eventually be assigned as a director of the physical training program at MacDill Field in Tampa, Florida and would subsequently be assigned to the Orlando Air Base baseball team for an exhibition game against the Washington Senators at Tinker Field. I would love to discover anything that would connect such a legend to the Bolling team.
A recurring statement often read on Chevrons and Diamonds is that further research and time are required to break through the mystery, pushing beyond the dead-ends and brick walls that I have reached with my efforts up to this point.
- Lowe and Campbell Sporting Goods Building NRHP Registration Application
- Catalog – Lowe & Campbell Athletic Goods, 1935 – 1936
- L&C Vintage Clothing – Online Sales Listings
- Made In Chicago Museum – Wilson Sporting Goods
Lowe and Campbell vintage sports uniform examples:
- 1929 Notre Dame Football Sideline Jacket
- 1930’s Game-Worn/ Used Basketball Uniform – Jersey & Trunks
- 1948 London Olympics Team USA Rowing Uniform Items – Gold Medalist Lloyd Butler
- 1950s Ararat Shrine All-Star Uniform – 1956 Olympic Gold Medalist, Dick Boushka
(Postscript: Sometimes, my research uncovers fascinating facts that while contextual with my interests, further energy would take me into a different direction. What I discovered appears to be the only piece of Bolling Field baseball history that is available online. This fantastic snippet regarding a Women’s Army Auxilliary Corps veteran, Sergeant Theresa M. Dischler, who also played for the WAAC baseball team at the air field during her time in the service of her country.
With nearly a month already completed for this new year of 2018 and 84 days since the heartbreaking end to “my” Dodgers amazing season with their loss to Houston in a subpar performance in Game Seven of the World Series. The offseason has been decidedly quiet following the sweepstakes for several teams vying for Giancarlo Stanton from the Marlins (there had been talks of bringing the slugger to the confines of Chavez Ravine). Alas, the Yankees and their wild-spending, wheeling and dealing as they continue their trend of pillaging the rosters of the “have-nots” (the teams with pittances of budgets, incapable of keeping their home-grown talent once those initial player contracts are fulfilled) and stocking their roster with the biggest names in the game, the winter months have been somewhat quiet. The player-transaction-silence for this Dodgers fan is somewhat golden as the Los Angeles talent pool is full, requiring minimal free-agent transactions in order to field a contending team for 2018.
In looking back on 2017 and not just the articles that I wrote, but also the pieces that I was able to add to my military baseball collection (not every new acquisition of 2017 made it into an article). I have been very selective and cautious to ensure that I what I acquire is genuine. Regardless of whether I am able to validate the artifact against a specific service member (ball-player), I want to be certain that the piece is correct. This isn’t to say that sellers are intentionally misleading with their listings of their family heirlooms but rather they make assumptions that because the item was in that veteran’s home (and he was a war veteran), it’s very existence is the authentication that is used when they draw their conclusions.
In reading a recent article in the San Jose Mercury regarding the current issues many people of my generation are dealing with: households (predominantly belonging to our aging parents) filled with a lifetime of treasures (and not-so-treasured items) and being in a position to liquidate the contents that we aren’t keeping for ourselves. Some people are shocked by the prices that people are wiling to pay (which is usually significantly lower than expectations):
What matters hardly at all in valuations are: how much you paid for the item; how much you love it; how much it is selling for on eBay. “There’s a lot of sentimental value out there,” says Neiheisel. “People get really upset when something they treasure isn’t worth much. … When everyone wants that one thing, that is where the … power is.”
Other people turn to listing items within online auctions, believing that the artifacts are priceless while they are also charged with raising money to care for their elderly family members (as was the case with this post-war baseball uniform group listed last fall). Sentimentality doesn’t translate into intrinsic value. As a collector and someone who strives to educate others, I sometimes try provide sellers with knowledge in attempt to reset their expectations…yes, I am that bad guy.
There were several listings over the course of the year of uniforms (or just simply, jerseys) that were listed as being from World War II or that they were connected to the U.S. armed forces when there was no evidence to support the sellers’ claims. One uniform in particular was clearly from the 1960s (my assessment based upon the materials, design and construction) and the team name seemed to indicate that it was from a high school (I can’t recall the specifics). I contacted the seller asking for markings, photographs or anything that could prove that it was used by a service member as part of a service team. The seller responded that he was merely a “picker” and didn’t recall where he got it and that he assumed it was WWII military. I provided the seller with some of my expertise and references to show what it was and he never responded. Of course the seller never changed his auction and some unsuspecting buyer overpaid for a school jersey believing it to be from WWII and a service team.
The items that did come home and subsequently I did cover in articles were some of the most significant discoveries since I have been collecting baseball artifacts from the armed forces. From the only white home Marines baseball jersey that I have seen in a decade to the two Marines baseball caps that landed here within a month of each other and then the Midshipman Fenno naval academy baseball medal, some of my favorite pieces were all acquired in 2017.
As for this site and whether it is worth the effort for me to continue to write and share my discoveries the endorsement seems to come from the nearly 500% increase in visitors and page views over the previous year. Considering that I launched this site in December of 2015, the increase in viewership is relative. So few people visited in 2016 which suggests that the readership growth is nothing to get too excited about.
One accomplishment that I was proud of was in creating the uniform and jersey archive for this site. I still have more work to get it to where it needs to be (in order for me to call it a successful launch) but it is off to a great start and it seems, judging by the visitor-analytics, that the information is valued by readers. I promise that I will get the remainder of the uniforms that I have come across added to the archive.
In just the first few weeks of this year, a few pieces have landed (that will be covered in upcoming posts) that are wonderful additions to the photos and ephemera areas of my collecting. Sadly, one that I was working diligently to land before the holidays didn’t materialize as I had hoped leaving me wondering if the seller changed his mind or sold it offline to another collector. I am refraining from providing details about the artifact in hopes that another opportunity arises with this seller so that I can bring it home (where it truly belongs) and preserve it in my “museum.” I am always seeking materials that are connected to players who served or servicemen who played (while serving) and both of the additions fit into these categories. Stay tuned for these and other articles regarding some other pieces that I am, at present, working on adding to my collection.
Now that I am back in the swing of things with this new year, I am ready to pursue, albeit with caution, patience and purpose, my collecting will be hyper-focused keeping me away from distracting pieces and locked in on those that truly align with my interests. I am also going to be better at curating, organizing, documenting and properly storing my collection along with rotating what I have on display.
What are your goals and objectives for 2018? I’d love to hear from you (comment below).
What better way to throw out the first pitch for this blog than to start out with an anecdote about baseball. This story is 20-plus years in the making and came full-circle this past Saturday.
I first discovered Ebbets Field Flannels (EFF) in 1989-90 while I was still serving on active duty. By 1991, I had made my first visit to the Baseball Hall of Fame in Cooperstown and was bitten by the vintage baseball memorabilia-bug after having viewed the relics of the past 150 years of the game that were on full display at the museum.
At that time, I read an article in the local paper about a business that was specializing in recreating vintage baseball jerseys from the Pacific Coast League – having amassed a library of images and some examples of the uniforms from that league in it’s heyday. They had been expanding to other minor leagues of the bygone era creating reproductions from historic (and now, defunct) teams and their star players. being the Dodgers fan that I am, I pursued for my first EFF purchase, a 1946 Montreal Royals road jersey.
A few months later, I learned of one of my favorite Dodgers players, the Duke of Flatbush, Edwin “Duke” Snider, was appearing at a local autograph session along with a host of other legends of the diamond. Wanting to proudly display my Dodgers pride, I decided to don my Royals jersey rather than blend in with the typical double-knit clad baseball fans also in attendance.
While waiting in line for my moment with The Duke, I observed his fairly limited interactions with each autograph seeker. He would ask how they wanted their item signed and then follow-suit with his Sharpie. There were so many people in line, he began to move quickly while still seemingly enjoying the oft-repeated words from each fan. When it was my turn, he looked at me and before he could say anything, he did a double-take with his eyes locking onto the gray flannel and blue “Montreal” script emblazoned across my chest.
In seconds, a massive smile spread across his face. “Where did you get THAT?” he asked, excitedly. “I wore that jersey before I made it to the Dodgers!!” he continued. I told him that I was fully aware of his minor league record and then of Ebbets Field Flannels and what they make and sell.
Fast forward twenty four years.
This past weekend, my wife and I were enjoying the morning following our overnight date. Since we were in the city (over an hour’s drive from our home), I asked my beautiful wife if she would indulge me (it was my birthday, after all) with a visit to Ebbets Field Flannels. Throughout the years, I have unhesitatingly surrendered a considerable amount of my income to fill my closet with jerseys, ball caps and t-shirts from this treasured establishment. Upon entrance, one is greeted by the larger-than-life photograph of Duke Snider making a leaping catch against the outfield wall of Brooklyn’s Ebbets Field.
After shopping and selecting a ball cap (1918 Great Lakes Naval Station) to buy, I approached the counter to pay. As the gentleman was ringing me up, I re-told my Duke story to him. As he listened, he smiled and was compelled to tell me a story of Snider and EFF. He went on to relay an encounter (as told to him by another long-standing employee) when a call was received by a man who went by the name, Duke Snider. Apparently, this employee was unfamiliar with ballplayers and responded to the caller, “your name sounds a lot like a ‘baseball name.'” Apparently, the caller nonchalantly agreed and went on to place an order for a jersey. After the call, the employee told another colleague about the call to which that person responded with a face-palm (at the notion that someone associated with this company doesn’t know a legendary Dodgers player).
The employee went on to tell me that this encounter with Mr. Snider occurred sometime in 1991. He felt that it was entirely possible that my encounter with The Duke had prompted him to call and order his own EFF jersey. This is merely speculation, but it is fun to consider.
I do have other such encounters that don’t quite fit the primary topic of this blog, but I might be so inclined to share them at some point.