Collecting an entire set or series of anything is a common behavior of those who obsesses over filling in the gaps or holes in collections. Manufacturers of keepsakes devise plans and construct schemes that are fashioned to touch specific nerves of those who are entirely obsessive-compulsive or just possess enough of the “disorder” to trigger exhaustive searches. Sports card companies created sets that contained upwards of 400 cards (along with checklists) that triggered kids to buy more wax packs in order to compete their sets. In the 1950s and 60s, kids would scour neighborhoods for empty soda bottles seeking to cash in on the deposit refunds in order to buy more packs of cards. Despite efforts such as these, it still proved difficult to compete a set, leading kids to engage in other activities (such as trading with other collectors).
Though I did collect baseball cards, I don’t recall ever having completed the assembling a set but the OCD behavior remains within me. With my current baseball militaria interest combined with the decade spent researching and documenting artifacts (either collected or relegated to missed opportunities), my knowledge in what exists has grown and I have been documenting various artifacts and effectively creating my own checklists of sorts. As I scan through my (physical) archive of military baseball scorecards and scorebooks, I am amazed not solely by what I have but also by the gaps where there should be additional pieces. Unlike card collecting where there were thousands upon thousands of copies of each card issued, scorecards and programs were printed in very limited numbers and, due to their intended use, were discarded following each game in large percentages.
With WWII’s official end following the signing of the Instrument of Surrender aboard the USS Missouri (BB-63) in Tokyo Bay, leadership across the services worked in earnest to transition the ranks from the role of a fighting a fighting force to one of occupation, peace-keeping and reconstruction. Most of those in uniform were awaiting word of when they would be released and returned to their pre-war lives which included the thousands of former professional ballplayers who were spread across the two principal war theaters. Three weeks after VJ-Day (September 2, 1945), Navy leadership took advantage of the opportunity to entertain those personnel who were on duty or R&R in the vicinity of the Hawaiian Islands. With so many of the game’s best and brightest stars still serving in the South Pacific and fresh from competition in the service team leagues, Vice Admiral Sherwood Ayerst Taffinder, Commandant of the Fourteenth Naval District along with the commanders of Third (Halsey), Fifth (Spruance) and Seventh (Kinkaid) Fleets conceived an idea to assemble the greats of the game who were still serving in the Pacific on active duty in the Navy.
Beginning on September 26, 1945, the series between the American League and National League All Star players serving within the Navy’s active duty ranks descended upon Furlong Field at the U.S. Army Air Forces base at Hickam Field for a seven-game series. The championship was more of a hybridization of Major League Baseball’s World Series and All-Star Game as the rosters were replete with stars from all levels of baseball including both the major and minor leagues (see: A Pesky Group of Type-1 WWII Navy Baseball Photos).
What is fascinating about the series is the seemingly abundance of a variety of artifacts originating from the games. In recent years, such treasures from the games have ranged from signed baseballs, photographs and ephemera such as ticket stubs, programs and scorecards.
Scorekeeping was devised by Henry Chadwick in 1870 to provide a means for statistical analysis of the performance of ball-players. While the term, “score-keeping” seems to infer management of the overall progress of the number of runs scored by each participating team, the practice is custom method of shorthand that employs a pre-printed grid on which to plot the progression of the game along with the performance of each individual player. From the early years up to present day, pre-printed scorecards have remained relatively unchanged.
A present-day scorecard may be purchased at the game for a few dollars, depending upon whether one is visiting a major or minor league ballpark or, as is with my own local minor league team, are given away with paid admission to the game. While most scorecards are disposed of soon after the game, some folks collect them. A scored (used) card is an historic record of a game, preserving a moment in time for others (who can read scorekeeper’s shorthand) to look back upon. Scorebooks, scorecards and programs are highly collectible, especially when they are attributed to a notable game or series.
With the 1945 Navy All Star Championship series in Hawaii, two different scorecards or scorebooks have surfaced in the last few years that are at opposite ends of the spectrum in terms of quality and professional appearance. One, a blue halftone booklet that features two photos of battleships in action with the title, “Here Comes the Navy” in script across the top. The booklet was produced specifically for the All Star Baseball Series at Pearl Harbor. The other piece is more specifically a scorecard that is entirely hand-illustrated (by an unknown, as of yet, “LT Topper, U.S.N.R.”) including the front and rear covers and the inside scoring grid and rosters. The cartoon-like drawings on the front and back covers feature whimsical caricatures of sailor-ballplayers and an umpire, reminiscent of 1930s comic strip characters.
The LT Topper-illustrated scorecard shares its paper medium with several other Pearl-Harbor originated scorecards which is very rough and yellowed with age, indicative of its low-cost to-produce. In the last ten days, three examples of this version have been listed and sold at (online) auction with two of them being scored from the same game. Due to the scarcity of any scorecards from the 1945 Navy All Star series, they tend to garner significant activity from collectors which drives the bidding fairly high ($80-$120), in contrast to major league scorecards from the era (which tend to hover around $30-$60).
Since there were seven games in total, some collectors might be driven to seek out scorecards that were scored for each game from the 1945 Series which could push the total investment (if one is successful in landing the associated card for each) towards $1,000.
The scorecard provides clarity as to the players who were brought in for the series. In the previous Chevrons and Diamonds article, the rosters (that I published) were an assemblage of names, culled together from news clippings and other accounts.
American League Roster:
|1||Johnny Pesky||Boston Red Sox|
|2||Ned Harris||Detroit Tigers|
|3||Tom Carey||Boston Red Sox|
|4||Jack Conway||Cleveland Indians|
|5||George Staller||Philadelphia Athletics|
|6||Lumon Harris||Philadelphia Athletics|
|7||Rollie Hemsley||New York Yankees|
|8||Bob Kennedy||Chicago White Sox|
|9||Al Lyons||New York Yankees|
|10||Bob Lemon||Cleveland Indians|
|11||Chet Hadjuk||Chicago White Sox|
|12||Eddie McGah||Boston Red Sox|
|14||Sherry Robertson||Washington Senators|
|16||Barney Lutz||St. Louis Browns|
|17||Eddie Weiland||Chicago White Sox|
|18||Hank Feimster||Boston Red Sox|
|19||Fred Hutchinson||Detroit Tigers|
|20||“Schoolboy” Rowe||Detroit Tigers||Manager|
|21||Ken Sears||New York Yankees|
|22||Jack Phillips||New York Yankees|
|23||Ted Williams||Boston Red Sox|
|24||Dick Wakefield||Detroit Tigers|
|25||Jack Hallett||Pittsburgh Pirates (Chi. White Sox)|
|26||Mickey McGowan||Texas League (Atlanta Crackers)|
|27||Warren Delbert||Bat Boy|
|1||Jerry Lonigro||Bat Boy|
|2||Ray Hamrick||Philadelphia Phillies|
|4||Ray (Bobby) Coombs||Jersey City (NY Giants)|
|5||Whitey Platt||Chicago Cubs|
|6||Wes Livengood||Milwaukee Brewers (Cin. Reds)|
|7||Hank Schenz||Portsmith Cubs (Chicago Cubs)|
|8||Charley Gilbert||Chicago Cubs|
|9||Wimpy Quinn||Los Angeles (Chicago Cubs)|
|10||Eddie Shokes||Syracuse Chiefs|
|11||Clyde Shoun||Cincinnati Reds|
|12||Russ Meers||Chicago Cubs|
|14||Stan Musial||St. Louis Cardinals|
|15||Bob Usher||Birmingham Barons|
|16||Billy Herman||Brooklyn Dodgers||Manager|
|17||Steve Tramback||Jersey City (NY Giants)|
|18||Cookie Lavegetto||Brooklyn Dodgers|
|19||Gil Brack||Brooklyn Dodgers|
|20||Bob Sheffing||Chicago Cubs|
|21||Dick West||Cincinnati Reds|
|22||Lou Tost||Boston Braves|
|24||Ray Lamanno||Cincinnati Reds|
|25||Hugh Casey||Brooklyn Dodgers|
|26||Jim Carlin||Philadelphia Phillies|
|27||Billy Barnacle||Minneapolis Millers|
|28||Dee Moore||Philadelphia Phillies|
|29||Aubrey Epps||Pittsburgh Pirates|
The task to gather them all is a daunting one and I doubt that there will be any measure of success in focusing on this goal.
Writing about baseball artifacts is a pleasure and tedious considering the volume of research that is poured into each artifact and subsequent article that is published on ChevronsAndDiamonds.org and that is beginning to show with the backlog of posts that is growing (inside of my head, at least) with the recent additions to my collection. With my last article (My Accidental Discovery: A Photographic Military Baseball Holy Grail of Sorts), I spent a few weeks researching; gathering details about the DiMaggio photograph, comparing it with others, delving into other aspects of his time in the Army Air Force and then committing it to more than 3,400 words. I often ask myself, “How does one manage a full-time career, a marriage and family (an active life) and still maintain a research and authoring schedule like this?” in the midst of a research project.
Several weeks ago, I was able to acquire my second military baseball (my first, a 1956-dated, team-signed ball from the 36th Field Artillery Group) after it was listed in conjunction with among a spate of items (originating from the same collection) that were all related to military baseball teams the Central Pacific area, in and around the Hawaiian Islands during World War II. Judging by the number of bids and potential buyers who were watching the three other auctions compared to a few who were watching (and had submitted bids on) what was listed as an autographed Navy-team baseball from the 1940s. The ball (aside from the signatures) is a easily datable, official National League (“Ford C. Frick”) Spalding baseball from 1943. With a glance at the auction listing’s photos, (aside from the obvious coating of shellac covering the ball) I recognized a few names on the ball though several were hard to discern.I decided since the bid amount was so low that it was worth risking (based solely on the verifiable age of the ball). With only a few hours remaining, I set my bid amount and waited.
I wanted to spend time investigating all of the signatures on the ball – to delve into each one to make an attempt to identify the names and thus, determine which team the ball was associated with but with so little time remaining, I moved ahead with submitting my bid with the hope that if I was unsuccessful with my plan to identify that I could turn around and re-list the ball. Hours later, the notification came that I was the highest bidder, much to my surprise. Hours following payment, I received notification from the seller that the ball was shipped and a tracking number was provided. Two days later, the ball was in my hands and that’s when it struck me that I was holding something that was connected to the players who participated in the legendary (at least, to me) games in the Hawaiian Islands during the War, that until now, was limited to scorecards and photographs.
I was elated to have a chance at this ball even though it was lacking signatures from the stars of the major leagues such as Pee Wee Reese, the DiMaggio brothers, Vander Meer, Hutchinson or my favorite, Ferris Fain. I wasn’t able to positively identify all of the signatures and two of them are almost completely faded or entirely illegible. There are a few major league ball players and several minor leaguers that have been identified. Those with an asterisk (*) were located on the Navy versus Major League All-Stars: Weaver Field, Submarine Base, April 19, 1944 score book (the double asterisk indicates a possible correlation between the signature and a name listed on the score book).
- Arne “Red” Anderson*
- Charlie Medlar
- Maurice Mozzali*
- John Powell*
- Charlie Bishop**
- Bob McCorkle*
- Walter Masterson*
- Bill Gerald
The first panel of signatures shows one name that I cannot positively identify (Charlie, the second from the top) and the one at the bottom is so heavily faded that I can’t make out a single character. Three of these players (Signalman and pitcher Anderson, Electrician’s Mate 2/c and shortstop Bishop and Chief Specialist and pitcher Masterson) all played in the major leagues. Catcher and Coxswain McCorkle and Torpedoman 1/c and pitcher Mozzali had minor league careers with the latter serving as a scout in the St. Louis Cardinals organization for 18 years followed by two seasons (1977-78) as a coach with the big league club. John Powell, listed on the April 19, 1944 program for the game between the Navy and the Major League All-Stars as a center fielder and an MS 1/c is still being researched.
- Raymond Keim
- Dutch Raffeis
- Carl Gresowski
- Jim Brennan*
- Bob Tomkins
- Ed Quinn
This panel is one of the more challenging of the four with three names that either illegible in part or entirely. While Jim Brennan shows also on the April 19, 1944 program (listed as “J. D. Brennen,” EM2/c, pitcher), the other players require further research. My efforts to date have been unfruitful but it is possible that searching military records via Fold3 or Ancestry might yield positive results. Combing through the various rosters (on the known printed scorecards and throughout those online at Baseball in Wartime) is a seemingly futile venture but at present, it is all that is available. I hold out hope that in the months and year ahead, that there more artifacts will surface.
- Gene Rengel
- Bob White**
- Frank Snider*
- Emil Patrick
- Ray Volpi
The third panel held signatures that were far more legible and hadn’t suffered fading though I didn’t fare much better in determining who the men are who signed this side of the ball. Two of the names, Snider (right fielder and signalman) and Simione (a center fielder and boatswain’s mate, 2nd class), are also listed on the April 19, 1944 scorecard (linked in the previous paragraph). Rengel, White and Patrick are still to be determined. In revisiting this article after discovering more names while conducting research for an upcoming article, I stumbled across Ray Volpi (previously thought to have been “Volp.” as an abbreviation of his name), a minor league pitcher in the Yankees organization. Ray last pitched professionally with the double-A Kansas City Blues (of the American Association) during the 1942 season. By 1943, Volpi was in the United States Navy and stationed at Norfolk and hurling for the Norfolk Naval Training Station Bluejackets (see: WWII Navy Baseball Uniforms: Preserving the Ones That Got Away) alongside Fred Hutchinson, Walt Masterson and Dutch Leonard. Chief Specialist Volpi would be in the South Pacific, playing in the Hawaii Leagues with several of his Bluejackets teammates by 1944. Five of these six names will have to be researched as service members while I believe that Snider went on to play four seasons of class “D” professional baseball, having played in 1942 with the Dothan Browns (of the Georgia-Florida League).
The last panel (which, in this case consists predominantly of the “sweet spot” of the ball) contains four very legible signatures and three of them are located on printed rosters within scorecards from the Central Pacific wartime baseball leagues. Also, (potentially) three of the men all had professional baseball careers following their service. One of these men, James J. “Jim” Gleeson, an outfielder who spent five seasons in the major leagues (1936 with Cleveland, 1939-40 with the Cubs and 1941-42 with Cincinnati) before joining the Navy. Following his war service, Gleeson returned to the game he loved, playing for six more seasons, but only at the minor league level. After 1951, his playing days were done, Jim continued his baseball career, serving as a scout, coach, and manager in the minors and spent many years as a coach with the Yankees on fellow Navy veteran, Yogi Berra’s 1964 Yankees-pennant-winning staff. Third baseman and Pharmacists’ Mate 3/c John “Hubie” Jeandron recommenced his professional career in 1946 at the class A level, bouncing around through class C and B levels until finishing his baseball career after the 1953 season. Gunner’s Mate 3/c and first baseman Frank T. Hecklinger (incorrectly listed as “E. T.” on the scorecard roster) also restarted his professional career but played in only 234 total games between the 1946 and 1947 seasons at the class C and B levels in the minors.
To many collectors, having a ball with signatures from a handful of minor leaguers and three non-star major leaguers wouldn’t merit much interest or be featured in a collection. Nevertheless, this ball is significant as it originates from games that were, to many men and women serving during WWII, distractions from the rigors and monotony of war giving them a fun departure from the harsh reality and a taste of the normalcy of home. This ball is a cherished addition to my collection and will serve to demonstrate how men from the highest levels of the game competed alongside of average Joes demonstrating unity in the fight against a common enemy in the cause of freedom from tyrants and oppression.
Brick walls. Dead ends. Regardless of the term one employs to describe fruitless research, the end result will always be disappointment.
A while ago, I located a fantastic jersey for a very reasonable price and despite the cursory research and due diligence not yielding specific results, I moved ahead with making a bid to purchase the artifact. What initially drew my attention to this jersey was that it was a departure from my norm in terms of the armed forces branches that were already represented within my collection (which, at the time, consisted of one Navy, two Army and three Marines baseball uniforms or jerseys). In nearly ten years of actively searching for military baseball items, I hadn’t yet seen anything from the Army Air Forces (or Air Corps).
The online listing showed a rather simple, road gray wool flannel jersey with thin black soutache on the placket, around the collar and located about one inch from the edge of each sleeve. What sets this jersey apart from others is the the application of the lettering. Spelling out “BOLLING FIELD” are athletic felt, two color (gold over navy blue), large block characters. Each letter consists of a gold piece of felt centered over a larger one of blue felt with color-matched stitching that give a illusion of three-dimensional appearance. The careful placement of the “E” (in FIELD) ensured that the button hole alignment wouldn’t interfere with a tasteful alignment of the team name.
On the left sleeve, a two-piece athletic felt (similar to the lettering) winged-propeller emblem, complete with accenting embroidery (adding feathers to the wing and a baseball at the center of the prop) denoting the Air Forces mission of the base. The back of the jersey is plain and without numerals. The style of the jersey and the overall design is representative of those from the early 1940s which coincides with the what the seller described as being a World War II baseball jersey.
Attempting to determine the age of the jersey or when it was made isn’t necessarily an easy task however there isn’t really anything substantive that can be used to pinpoint the age. The team name provides an era (1918-1948) when the base existed as an airfield (rather than an Air Force Base following the establishment of the U.S. Air Force). Bolling Field was established after the Defense Department’s property was divided between the army and the navy for each branch’s aviation operations in the Washington D.C. area. Named for Ranar C. Bolling, a colonel who, having been recently appointed (by General Pershing) as the chief of air service for II Corps when he was killed (on March 26, 1918), during Operation Michael while he was scouting in the early days of the offensive. A thirty-year window of age possibilities hardly provided me with specificity so I had to look at the jersey’s other elements.
A commonality among the majority of the military jerseys that I have seen and certainly within my collection is the absence of manufacturer’s tags. Most of the uniforms and jerseys worn by service-member ball players have just a lone size tag. the Bolling jersey has a tag that until I acquired this jersey, I had not seen before.
If the jersey was made by Spalding or Goldsmith, the tag would be very useful in determining the age (see: Early Baseball Uniforms Manufacturer Tags Database: 1890 – 1942). These two manufacturers employed a measure of consistency (even as the logo changed, it did so in specific periods) over the course of manufacturing an immeasurable volume of baseball uniforms for professional and amateur teams. However, the manufacturer of the Bolling jersey, Lowe & Campbell, has a more murky history in terms of label usage and available, pinpoint-dated examples to draw comparisons. I was able to find a handful of L & C label examples but when attempting to use them as a basis for dating, there is considerable challenge, especially considering the company’s history.
Lowe and Campbell (L&C) was founded in Kansas City, Missouri in 1912 by George C. Lowe and Keedy Campbell during a period of massive growth in the sporting goods industry that was already being dominated by companies (Spalding, Rawlings and Wilson) that, today remain the leading manufacturers and suppliers of sports equipment. L&C’s early years in the industry found their principle customers in schools, colleges and universities and within the the realm of athletic teams sponsored by private industry. Throughout their first decade, the company experience growth, opening up offices throughout the Midwest but by the early 1930s, had become a target of one of the larger sporting goods giants who were seeking to rapidly expand into markets via acquisitions, as was the common practice, rather than expending effort and resources to develop into these areas. Wilson Sporting Goods entered into a merger agreement with L & C in 1931, but rather than to absorb the smaller company, Wilson positioned themselves as the wholesale supplier and retained their acquisition, L&C became a division of the giant as retailers of their products.
Maintaining this corporate alignment well into the next few decades, Wilson expanded the L&C offices into new markets and continued to produce products that carried the company’s logos. The catalogs throughout this era reveal that Lowe and Campbell expanded their product lines to include a greater variety of sport. As with the practices of many sporting goods retailers, their product offerings were predominantly manufactured by different sporting good companies with L&C adding their own tags and company markings. Even prior to the merger, Lowe and Campbell sold re-branded products supplied by manufacturers such as Hillerich and Bradsby, the makers of Louisville Slugger bats.
“After the merger the Lowe & Campbell brand of baseball bats disappear from the catalogs. Wilson baseball bats are added to the catalog by 1940, but they continue to sell Louisville Slugger bats, which dominate the catalogs. Wilson continued to manufacture baseball gloves under the private Branded Lowe & Campbell name. Because of the lack of catalog information it is not clear when Louisville Slugger began to make the Lowe & Campbell brand of baseball bats They do appear in the 1922 Lowe & Campbell catalog along side Louisville Slugger.” – KeyMan Collectibles
Following World War II, Wilson’s growth had continued as they acquired additional small sporting goods companies. Lowe and Campbell’s retail operation was eliminated as they were transformed into a wholesale operation their parent, Wilson functioning as both the manufacturer and wholesaler. The shift away from retail diminished the L&C brand and by 1960, Wilson eliminated it all together, shuttering the division and even closing down the Kansas City facility where Lowe and Campbell began.
Today, the remnants of the sporting goods brand exist via collectors who preserve the artifacts that produced and sold by Lowe and Campbell. However, a re-birth of the L&C brand is in process and the owner, Thomas Martin, whom acquired the brand, shared with me (via the company’s Facebook page) that Lowe and Campbell‘s 2018 fall launch will be headlined with American manufactured sports apparel.
Attempting to chronologically trace the progression of the company’s label history seems to be a futile attempt, especially in determining the of date the Bolling Field jersey. I found various (dates known) L&C branded garments and checked the labels in an effort to piece together a timeline and was unsuccessful at narrowing down transitional patterns.
Desiring to tap into the expertise of the new owner of the Lowe and Campbell brand, I asked Thomas Martin about the logos and tags, sharing some of the samples (shown above) in an effort to gain some insight. “No one,” Martin stated, “kept historical dated records of the brand,” but, in his experience with the vintage garments themselves, is able to determine the age, having seen countless products that were made and sold by Lowe and Campbell during the company’s first incarnation. Mr. Martin’s assessment of the label in the Bolling jersey was that it dated from the 1930s, “L&C only used two logos,” Martin wrote, “the one you have was used in the 30’s.” Martin discussed the logo change as a result of being acquired (in 1931 by Wilson). Garments made by the company in the 1940s began to receive a new logo (see the two bottom-right examples, above) on their tags.
My next research step will be to search through newspaper archives from WWII in the Washington D.C. area seeking any box scores or news articles regarding the Bolling Field team’s game-play. My hope is that the Army Air Force public relations personnel was as open in terms of publicizing the competitiveness of their base team. In my estimation, this team had to have competed against other service teams within the region including the Norfolk Naval Training Station and Norfolk Naval Air Station teams. The only baseball-specific lead (with a possible connection) that I have discovered regarding Bolling centers on Hank Greenberg.
In Hank Greenberg: The Hero of Heroes, author John Rosengren states, “A friend of Hank’s, Sam Edelman, wrote on his behalf to have Hank promoted to the rank of captain and assigned as an athletic director in the Air Corps (sic) at Bolling Field. Two brigadier generals carried the request to the War Department, lobbying for the educational qualifications (for an officer’s commission) to be waived for Greenberg. The Adjutant General denied the request on the grounds that it was ‘contrary to the policies of the Secretary of War.'” No mention is made (within the book) regarding Sergeant Greenberg’s ball-playing at Bolling Field. However, according to Rosengren, Greenberg would eventually be assigned as a director of the physical training program at MacDill Field in Tampa, Florida and would subsequently be assigned to the Orlando Air Base baseball team for an exhibition game against the Washington Senators at Tinker Field. I would love to discover anything that would connect such a legend to the Bolling team.
A recurring statement often read on Chevrons and Diamonds is that further research and time are required to break through the mystery, pushing beyond the dead-ends and brick walls that I have reached with my efforts up to this point.
- Lowe and Campbell Sporting Goods Building NRHP Registration Application
- Catalog – Lowe & Campbell Athletic Goods, 1935 – 1936
- L&C Vintage Clothing – Online Sales Listings
- Made In Chicago Museum – Wilson Sporting Goods
Lowe and Campbell vintage sports uniform examples:
- 1929 Notre Dame Football Sideline Jacket
- 1930’s Game-Worn/ Used Basketball Uniform – Jersey & Trunks
- 1948 London Olympics Team USA Rowing Uniform Items – Gold Medalist Lloyd Butler
- 1950s Ararat Shrine All-Star Uniform – 1956 Olympic Gold Medalist, Dick Boushka
(Postscript: Sometimes, my research uncovers fascinating facts that while contextual with my interests, further energy would take me into a different direction. What I discovered appears to be the only piece of Bolling Field baseball history that is available online. This fantastic snippet regarding a Women’s Army Auxilliary Corps veteran, Sergeant Theresa M. Dischler, who also played for the WAAC baseball team at the air field during her time in the service of her country.
So many of my articles and much of my artifact-seeking has been focused upon uniforms and photographs yet, the principle object of the sport that I am keenly interested in, the ball itself, has all but eluded my pursuit since I entered into this endeavor nearly a decade ago. The first breakthrough in my searching for authentic baseballs came at the beginning of this year with my successful acquisition of the team-signed 36th Field Artillery baseball from 1956 and still my archive of artifacts would be well-suited if it included a few more leather-clad, stitched orbs.
Roughly nine-inches in circumference and weighing roughly five ounces, baseballs have been been consistent in their size for more than a century. Until 1974, the animal skin covering of most balls (including those used by both major leagues) consisted of horsehide when the change to cowhide was made. With the exception of wartime military issued (italics for emphasis as baseballs were not government-provided) balls used by service members in league play or pick-up games could vary widely in their origins. Though I have not been able to verify alternative sources, balls (along with other equipment such as gloves, bats, catchers’ gear and uniforms) used by service members were sourced through many different means. Aside from the Baseball Fund during both world wars, balls could be obtained directly from sporting goods stores, government procurement or sent to the players from family members on the homefront.
The balls that were provided during WWII via the Baseball Equipment Fund ( commencing with fund-raising via the 1942 season’s Major League All-Star Game held at New York’s Polo Grounds) were manufactured by the Rawlings Sporting Goods Company and marked accordingly with the manufacturer’s standard stampings along with the unique and easily recognizable Baseball Fund stamps. Unsurprisingly with game usage, the stamps would be diminished as they were rubbed off from continued contact with glove-leather, bat-impact along with striking and skidding across various types of field surfaces. Locating a ball with the markings intact is not unheard of however I have only ever seen one listing of a ball that had been sold.
I am certain that many prospective collectors of military baseballs are seeking (but are unfortunately not available) irrefutable methods to authenticate and validate a ball that has been listed for sale as or is purported to be a service team or military-used piece. Due to the many sources that provided baseballs (including official Reach/Spalding-made American and National League balls) to military personnel, authentication can be a considerable challenge with a ball that lacks identifiable markings or that is without substantiated provenance from the service-member whopreviously owned the ball.
Throughout my years studying this subject and these artifacts along with collaboration with long-time experts in vintage baseballs (including major and minor leagues, collegiate, little leagues and balls sold through various sporting goods and department stores). There are no doubts as to one particular method of ruling out balls that are being sold as genuine military-used item. No evidence exists (documented, photographic or veteran recollection) that substantiates any baseballs being stamped with bold “U.S.” or “Special Services” markings. Sadly, despite the best efforts of several experts, the fraudulent sales are rampant and thriving in spaces such as eBay. Since I published These eBay Pitch-men are Tossing Spitballs at Unsuspecting Collectors and the update, more than two-dozen new victims have purchased from the most-prominent online fraudster, “giscootterjoe” to the tune of more than $1,000.00. There are a handful of other folks who sell the faked U.S.-marked balls, capitalizing on giscotterjoe’s cottage industry but he is consistent in his listings, following the same, weekly pattern.
Authentication of these baseballs doesn’t require decades of research and comparative analysis to get a sense (even through photographs) of its authenticity. If one played baseball, recalling the damage that is inflicted upon a ball from being batted, bouncing off certain field surfaces (who can forget the scarring balls receive from sandlot gravel or even pavement?), then applying those memories to supposed game-used balls should provide prospective buyers with a strong authentication starting point. Soiling, field stains and bat-marks are random on genuine baseballs. With careful examination, one should be able to see remnants of the manufacturer’s stamps, despite the game use.
As with my recent acquisition, autographed baseballs will require additional scrutinizing. The signatures of soldiers, sailors or airmen are nearly impossible to verify as comparative examples typically do not exist. Researching the names against unit rosters (from the National Archives, unit or base museums or even unit historical publications such as ship cruise-books) which could take time. Common sense tells me that highly unlikely for a fraudster to create a specific unit baseball (such as the “Rammers” ball team of the 36th Field Artillery from 1956) with signatures.
Further examination of the signatures to determine if the age of the ink fits the purported date of the ball (60 years of oxidation, ultraviolet deterioration will fade the ink) requires very little expertise and with my ball, the aging appears appropriate. By 1956 the Professional Baseball Fund was eleven years in the past leaving armed forces teams to source their baseballs through normal channels. Though the 36th team-signed ball is a Wilson Official League ball, the model number indicates that it was made for use in little leagues but the stamps verify that it was made in the early-to-mid 1950s. Judging by the stains on all of the panels, the ball doesn’t appear to have been game-used. At most the ball might have made impact contact with gloves but I suspect that the soiling is due to handling.
In last week’s post, I indicated that I landed my second military baseball (a military-team signed 1943 Spalding, Ford C. Fricke National League ball) which is the subject of a forth-coming article. With two balls added to my collection in the last few months, I am only inspired to continue my quest to land at least one of the Baseball Fund-marked balls from the second World War.
In looking at my article writing and publishing patterns of the last twelve months, I can see that I have been merely sporadic and entirely lacking consistency. Since the beginning of April, 2017 until my latest article (at the time of writing this), Seals at War, I have only managed to create 20 articles (a 1.67/month average). A simple scan of the titles reminds me of the reason for such inconsistency: this genre of the baseball or militaria hobby is very sparse in terms of the availability of artifacts. I also suspect that with the steady increase of readership of my articles, I am potentially my own worst enemy as my stories are fueling others’ interest in this area of collecting.
Adding only a handful of artifacts to my collection had a direct correlative impact on providing me with my preferred inspirational subject-matter. In the last several weeks, my bank account of inspiration has received some fantastic credits that are changing the year-long, stagnant trend. In addition to landing the 1944 Seals scorebook, the Waldron NAAF Jersey, a magnificent 1920s baseball medal, and my very first military-related baseball which is getting (my) 2018 off to a very bright start…and there is much more to come!
As with baseball, we can’t win every game and that was the case with the auction of the circa-1944 photograph of the U.S. Navy baseball team on Tinian on which my meager bid was summarily beaten, a few short weeks ago. Missed opportunities are a part of life, the game and so go hand-in-hand with collecting. Whiffing on an artifact that would be an absolutely perfect fit for my collection can be frustrating and yet these occurrences are positive in that I gain understanding on those pieces that are in greater demand and thus have more competitors to land them.
In the article I wrote about the 1944 Seals score book, I made reference to the two WWII service teams pieces that I previously purchased. The first one that I acquired, a Program and score card from the Third Army Championship games, hosted in early August of 1945 at Nuremberg Stadium in Germany opened my eyes to how invaluable these pieces are as records of men who played as they served. The second piece that came home was a battered Scorecard from Game 7 of the 1944 Army vs Navy Championship Series played at Furlong Field on Hickam Army Air Force Base. Both of these game are have been well-documented. There is one additional scorecard (article forthcoming) for a USAAF all-star game that I have in my collection.
A few weeks ago, I was watching a few listings from a person who was selling some fantastic pieces of military baseball memorabilia (purportedly acquired from a hobbyist). In seeing how the bidding was proceeding on the three pieces that I was very interested in (two scorecards and a score book) were from World War II and related to specific games that were played between all-star service teams whose teams consisted primarily of professional baseball players.
- Navy versus Major League All-Stars: Weaver Field, Submarine Base, April 19, 1944
- Army All-stars versus Navy All-stars: Hoolulu Park, Hilo, Hi
Friday October 6, 1944
- Navy vs Army All-Stars| Fourth game in the Central Pacific Championship Series
Each piece already has numerous bids on them when I first saw them and I realized within a short period of time that each one was going to exceed not only what I was willing to pay for any of them but also their market value. The italicized text is intentional as what a particular piece is worth can be highly subjective. With these items having been produced in small numbers (that is my speculation due to the audiences that are believed to have attended the games), there are so few of them and transaction histories are difficult to obtain (I manually track them) which further complicates the discussion surrounding valuation. In the end, the price that one person is willing to pay essentially establishes the value of an item. For each of these pieces of military baseball ephemera, the excitement of the bidding and the desire to win an auction resulted, in my opinion, inflated final bid prices.
As an aside, less attention was given to a signed team baseball (one of the Navy teams on the rosters contained withing the scorecards) resulting in a very low price and facilitating my ability to land my second military baseball in less than two weeks.
The three items are considerable pieces that shine more light on these little-known games by providing rosters with the names of players, positions, their former teams, branches and, on one roster, the ranks of the ball players.
1. Navy versus Major League All-Stars: Weaver Field, Submarine Base, April 19, 1944
Though my research has yielded no information regarding this specific game, I am confident that in time, I will be able to locate a Stars and Stripes article, at the very least. Some facts that stand out to me in viewing this artifact lie within the rosters themselves. While the major league all-stars team consisted of mostly major leaguers who were serving in the Navy, one player, Tom Winsett, was serving in the Army. I am didn’t quite conclude my research to determine which of the Dickey brothers (Bill or George) was suited up for the Major League team however I do know that both served in and played on the Navy teams. Considering this roster, one would suspect that the odds of a team of naval personnel could pose any sort of a challenge to be rather slim.
Major League All-Stars Roster
|Grace||Joe||3B||Navy||St. Louis Browns|
|Harris||Robert A.||P||Navy||Philadelphia Athletics|
|Lucadello||John||2B||Navy||St. Louis Browns|
|Masterson||Walter E.||P||Navy||Washington Senators|
|Mize||Johnny||1B||Navy||St. Louis Cardinals|
|Pellagrini||Eddie||SS||Navy||San Diego Padres|
|Reese||Pee Wee||SS||Navy||Brooklyn Dodgers|
(Major League players in italics)
The Navy All-Stars team wasn’t simply stocked with neophytes and amateur ball players. Present on the roster for the Navy were five veterans hailing from the Athletics and Senators of the American League. At least two of the amateurs (Mo Mozzali and John Jeandron) went on to play professional baseball and perhaps continued research will yield more confirmations of post-War athletic careers of these men.
|Atkinson||Norman E. “Gene”||C||TM2/c||Semi-Pro|
|Brass||T. H.||P||C Sp|
|Harris||Bob||P||SP 1/c||Philadelphia Athletics|
|Jeandron||John Hubert||3B||PhM3/c||Port Arthur Tarpons|
|Johnson||A. Rankin||P||YN1/c||Philadelphia Athletics|
|Masterson||Walter E.||P||C Sp||Washington Senators|
The fact that a few items surfaced as I was watching this scorecard, I didn’t bother to submit a bid as the price seemed to be capable of exceeding (in my experience) the prices that these pieces normally garner. When the bidding closed, the final price was less than $51.00 but I suspect that the winning bidder had significant bid that would preclude prospective buyers from submitting a reasonable price that would be capable of toppling.
2. Army All-stars versus Navy All-stars: Hoolulu Park, Hilo, Hi | Friday, October 6, 1944
The second of the three scorecards that was sold garnered considerably greater interest (16 bids) as it sold for more than double of the preceding card and that was undoubtedly due to the sheer star power contained within both teams’ the rosters. Though the Army team for this game was fully-stocked with veritable stars taken from the ranks of the majors and minor leagues, the Navy team carried far more stars with major league experience. One of the Army’s star hitters, Ferris Fain, was building a name for himself and taking advantage of the opportunity as he demonstrated his abilities with his Army Air Force team, playing on the team at Hickam Air Field on Oahu. Fain had played four seasons of professional baseball with the San Francisco Seals of the Pacific Coast League but was making a name for himself prior to enlisting following the 1942 season. Nine of Fain’s teammates on this Army All-Star team were major leaguers, headlined by seven-time American League All-Star and two-time league MVP, Joe DiMaggio who had also been playing for the Army Air Force team with Fain.
|Ardizoia||Rugger||P||Kansas City Blues|
|Beazley||Johnny||P||St. Louis Cardinals|
|Dillinger||Bob||3B||Toledo Mud Hens|
|DiMaggio||Joe||OF||New York Yankees|
|Erautt||Eddie “Ace”||P||Hollywood Stars|
|Fain||Ferris||1B||San Francisco Seals|
|Gordon||Joe||SS||New York Yankees|
|Judnich||Walter||OF||St. Louis Browns|
|Lien||Al||P||San Francisco Seals|
|Lodigiani||Dario||2B||Chicago White Sox|
|Silvera||Charley||C||Kansas City Blues|
|Winsett||Tom Winsett||Mgr.||Brooklyn Dodgers|
The Navy team, in addition to being considerably larger (37), outnumbered the Army’s major leaugers (9) by more than three-to-one and one could assume that such a talent disparity would result in their dominance in this particular game.
Unlike today’s game in which players routinely migrate from one major league team and league to another, these men were subject to Baseball’s Reserve Clause making them perpetual “property” of their respective teams, indefinitely (until being released or traded). Noting that within these rosters, several major league teammates oppose each other with their respective service teams. It wasn’t until 1947 with Major League Baseball was integrated with the promotion of Jackie Robinson to the Brooklyn Dodgers’ roster (having played the 1946 season at AA Montreal), but in 1944, the Army team featured pitcher Hal Hairston, formerly of the Homestead Grays of the Negro Leagues.
|Anderson||Arne R.||P||Washington Senators|
|Berry||John||OF||University of Oregon|
|Dickey||Bill||Mgr.||New York Yankees|
|Dickey||George||C||Chicago White Sox|
|DiMaggio||Dominick||OF||Boston Red Sox|
|Feimster||Hank||P||Boston Red Sox|
|Grace||Joe||OF||St. Louis Browns|
|Harris||Robert A.||P||Philadelphia Athletics|
|Jeandron||John Hubert||2B||Port Arthur Tarpons|
|Johnson||A. Rankin||P||Philadelphia Athletics|
|Lucadello||John||2B||St. Louis Browns|
|Masterson||Walter E.||P||Washington Senators|
|Mize||Johnny||1B||St. Louis Cardinals|
|Mozzali||Mo Mozzali||OF||Louisville, KY|
|Reese||Pee Wee||SS||Brooklyn Dodgers|
|Rizzuto||Phil||3B||New York Yankees|
|Rowe||Lynn “Schoolboy”||P||Detroit Tigers|
|Schulmerich||Wes||Asst. Mgr||Boston Red Sox|
|Sears||Ken “Ziggy”||C||New York Yankees|
|Vander Meer||Johnny||P||Cincinnati Reds|
This scorecard was printed and distributed for on of the games in what was known as the Army-Navy World Series that was held throughout the Hawaiian Islands from September 22 to October 15, 1944. The Navy bested the Army, eight games to two (in this series) with the ninth game concluding in a 10-inning, 6-6 tie. This scorecard is specific to game 9.
3. Navy vs Army All-Stars| Fourth game in the Central Pacific Championship Series
The last of the scorecards also originates from the 1944 Army vs Navy World Series. This particular game (the fourth of 11) was played at Redlander Field, Schofield Barracks, September 25, 1944. According to Baseball in Wartime, the game was filled with excitement but would wind up with a fourth consecutive victory for the Navy All-Stars.
“The Navy took an early lead over the Army in the fourth game, witnessed by 10,000, as it jumped on four hurlers for 11 hits. Johnny Mize, ex-Giant first baseman, poled a 360-foot homer in the first inning after Barney McCosky walked, and the Navy scored one in the third and fourth, four in the fifth and single runs in the sixth and seventh to win, 10 to 5. The Army could not get its sights set up til the sixth frame, when five runs rolled over the plate, during which rally Ferris Fain, from the San Francisco Seals, and Joe Gordon, former New York Yankee second baseman, homered, knocking out Virgil Trucks and bringing Schoolboy Rowe, last with the Phillies, to the rescue.
Johnny Beazley, who was the victim in the first game, was hit freely by the Navy and retired in the fifth inning in favour of Ed Erautt, property of the Hollywood Pacific Coast League club, who, in turn, was succeeded by Carl DeRose, New York Yankee farmhand, in the sixth. Hairston finished up on the mound for the Army.”
This scorebook is, by far, the most desirable of the three that were sold. Complete with player photos of the star players, the book consists of multiple pages and, like the previous two scorecards, is unused. Topping out in both the number of bids (19) and selling price ($122.68), the most desired piece of the three didn’t fail to draw the most attention among the three auctions.
The Rosters for both of these last championship series games are nearly identical with the same combination of major and minor leaguers along with a few semi-professionals and a collegiate ball player.
|13||Ardozoia||Rugger||P||Kansas City Blues|
|16||Beazley||Johnny||P||St. Louis Cardinals|
|1||Dillinger||Bob||3B||Toledo Mud Hens|
|4||DiMaggio||Joe||CF||New York Yankees|
|19||Erautt||Eddie “Ace”||P||Hollywood Stars|
|7||Fain||Ferris||1B||San Francisco Seals|
|6||Gordon||Joe||SS||New York Yankees|
|3||Judnich||Walter||RF||St. Louis Browns|
|25||Lien||Al||P||San Francisco Seals|
|2||Lodigiani||Dario||2B||Chicago White Sox|
|8||Silvera||Charley||C||Kansas City Blues|
|20||Winsett||Tom Winsett||Mgr.||Brooklyn Dodgers|
|26||Anderson||Arne R.||P||Washington Senators|
|9||Berry||John||RF||University of Oregon|
|28||Dickey||Bill||Mgr.||New York Yankees|
|15||Dickey||George||C||Chicago White Sox|
|11||DiMaggio||Dominick||CF||Boston Red Sox|
|Feimster||Hank||P||Boston Red Sox|
|28||Grace||Joe||RF||St. Louis Browns|
|24||Harris||Robert A.||P||Philadelphia Athletics|
|20||Jeandron||John Hubert||2B||Port Arthur Tarpons|
|23||Johnson||A. Rankin||P||Philadelphia Athletics|
|5||Lucadello||John||2B||St. Louis Browns|
|26||Masterson||Walter E.||P||Washington Senators|
|32||Mize||Johnny||1B||St. Louis Cardinals|
|13||Mozzali||Mo Mozzali||CF||Louisville, KY|
|34||Reese||Pee Wee||SS||Brooklyn Dodgers|
|2||Rizzuto||Phil||SS||New York Yankees|
|26||Rowe||Lynn “Schoolboy”||P||Detroit Tigers|
|30||Schulmerich||Wes||Asst. Mgr.||Boston Red Sox|
|14||Sears||Ken “Ziggy”||C||New York Yankees|
|27||Vander Meer||Johnny||P||Cincinnati Reds|
Though the series was billed as a best seven of the eleven games, the Navy had the series nailed shut well ahead of completing all eleven. The military brass wanted to ensure that the service members throughout the Islands had full opportunity to see the baseball legends taking the field with some 10,000 spectators in attendance at each game.
The 1944 Army/Navy All-Star Championship Series in Hawaii
- September 22 – Furlong Field, Hickam (Navy, 5-0)
- September 23 – Furlong Field (Navy, 8-0)
- September 25 – Schofield Barracks (Navy, 4-3)
- September 26 – Kaneohe Bay NAS (Navy, 10-5)
- September 28 – Furlong Field (Navy, 12-2)
- September 30 – Furlong Field (Navy, 6-4)
- October 1 – Furlong Field (Army, 5-3)
- October 4 – Maui (Navy 11-0)
- October 5 – Maui (Army 6-5)
- October 6 – Hoolulu Park, Hilo (Tie, 6-6)
- October 15 – Kukuiolono Park (Navy, 6-5)
These two scorecards (or scorebooks) from the 1944 Championship Series (also billed as the Army vs Navy World Series) are unique to their respective games. Combining the two (above) with the one scorecard that I possess tells me that there is a good possibility that there is a potential for seven others to be on the lookout for.