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How Does One Place a Value on History? Pricing a Military Baseball Uniform Group

Seeing an historic baseball jersey sell for more than $2 million is mind-blowing. Knowing that the sale price of the only surviving game-worn jersey from Jackie Robinson (from his 1947 rookie season) fell considerably short of the pre-auction estimate (in excess of $3M) and yet it broke the auction house’s previous record for a post-WWII jersey (Sandy Koufax’s 1955 jersey sold for $573,600) is even more awe-inspiring. While these legends’ jerseys will continue to garner riches when they come to market, the uniforms of utility players are valued at mere fractions of the select few elites from the game’s history and lore. To contrast, a recent auction for a jersey from (then) San Francisco Giants Hall of Fame outfielder, Willie Mays sold a few days prior (to Jackie’s auction close) for a mere $701. Yet another jersey from Hall of Famer, Nolan Ryan (from his 1986 season with the Houston Astros) garnered greater interest selling for more than $10,700 shows how wide-ranging game worn apparel pricing and interest can be within the collectors’ marketplace.  The same holds true for those who collect militaria, or more specifically, military baseball.

A uniform grouping from a notable general, admiral or decorated service member can garner considerable collector interest as the sales can reap four and on rare occasions, five digit returns. The perceived value of their uniforms are impacted depending on what the veteran did during their service (valor decorations earned, battles that they participated in, etc.). One of my favorite uniform groups (owned by a friend and fellow collector) is that of Rear Admiral Robert W. Copeland who sailed his ship, the USS Samuel B. Roberts headlong into battle against the Japanese battle group, led by the Yamato in the Battle off Samar. His actions ultimately saved the American carrier group that he was protecting by inflicting damage on the Japanese (though his ship was destroyed). The Copeland group would be worth a few thousand dollars to collectors though to me, it is priceless and would be well-received into my collection (he and I share the same hometown). Copeland received the Navy Cross, the Navy’s highest decoration for combat valor (beneath the Medal of Honor) for his heroic actions.

It is difficult to compare uniform groups’ values; the service of a veteran such as Copeland is far more noteworthy than that of one of my own relatives. I would never sell a uniform from my family’s history thought if that were to be a need, I would have to price it comparable to other comparable groups. To me, my uncle’s service and history is priceless but that doesn’t translate to a fellow collector having the same association with the items nor would they be willing to pay a premium price for an otherwise humble military history and uniform.

When I saw this listing, I was intrigued. I initially made the assumption that the veteran must have been a Hall of Fame player due to the $5,000 asking price (image source: eBay screenshot).

RARE Army Baseball Uniform w Jacket 1951-2 Karlsruhe Germany AAA EUCOM $4,999.94

 (sic) Super rare genuine post WWII – Occupied Germany collectible. Our soldiers didn’t all leave once the fighting stopped- the cleanup/restoration began and   baseball was played to boost moral. This is from a veteran-one of the lucky ones who got to play baseball (in his words), he was a pretty good player in his day, even scouted by the Yankees at one time-with a letter to prove it (not included)!”

This uniform grouping is quite intriguing for collectors of military baseball. I assume that the black flannel “A” represents “Army” however there is an absence of any other direct evidence that these two pieces were used for a military ball club. Even the photograph provided by the seller showed the veteran wearing a different uniform. One has to use judgement regarding the provided provenance (image source: eBay image).

$5000 is a lot of money for most collectors, regardless of their income or how much they have invested into their collection (through buying, selling and trading) throughout their years in this hobby. Understanding what factors drive collectors’ interest and how they value items would help sellers be more prepared when deciding to part with artifacts and in particular, family history.

What value can be placed upon provenance in relation to an historical artifact or object? How does one arrive at a valuation of an artifact? How much is an item worth? These questions perplex those who are in possession of antiques, especially when the time comes to decide to downsize a home and pare down collections to a more manageable size. Often, surviving family members left with the considerably uncomfortable task of liquidating a loved-one’s estate grew extremely wearing from wading through a lifetime of personal effects, documents, household items and other pieces in preparation for clearing a home for sale. In many cases, one (or both) of the elder individuals are being relocated into long-term care and the value in the estate is the only means to provide a means to exist in the new care facility. Any object that has monetary value must, from the vantage point of those performing the liquidation, be maximized.

Those familial artifacts that I have inherited possess significantly more than monetary value to me. The military-specific artifacts that I have in my collection that originated from my grandfather, uncles, etc. aren’t necessarily rare or highly desired by militaria collectors however to me, they are priceless. Many items from my uncle’s service ended up being donated or sold in an estate sale before I had the opportunity to lay claim to them. The most desired (by me) pieces from another relative’s estate (who was an avid militaria collector) were essentially given away for nothing (to the estate seller) after I made the decision to leave them off my want-list. My list was prepared by me with the understanding that I would compensate the estate for the honest valuations that I assigned to each object. The most valuable artifacts were omitted from my list due to my limited funds to pay for them. Those items went unsold and the estate seller kept all unsold items and I received everything on my list, free and clear.

I have written several articles about baseball uniforms, jerseys and equipment that I would have been honored to be the caretaker of, showcasing these pieces among my collection. These artifacts are often listed, considerably overpriced by most collectors’ standards. On some occasions, I encounter listings where the seller over-values their pieces with prices that are on par or exceed the value of artifacts from legends of the diamond or the armed forces. Considering the importance that I place upon historical objects from my own family as well as my experiences in selling historical objects in order to fund assisted-living care, it is with that understanding that I don’t initially and negatively react to (these sellers’) exorbitant prices. Several weeks ago, I had such an experience with a family member charged with a similar task and with the goal of working to pay their deceased-veteran family member’s estate debt.

After spending the better part of eight-ten years observing, documenting and purchasing World War II and older military baseball uniforms, I have a solid understanding of their value and what one should expect to pay or sell them for. In addition to my experience with these uniforms, I have paid considerable attention to game-used uniforms of professional ball players (including notable and Hall of Famers). I am often comparing uniforms and jerseys from both the military and professional teams of the same era (1940s) as they are very similar in terms of construction and design.

The auction title and description for the Post-WWII Karlsruhe, Germany baseball uniform caught my attention. The group of baseball militaria included a wool flannel jersey and matching trousers along with a wool letterman-style jacket. The jersey was plain and had a large black flannel “A” on the left breast and numerals (“15”) on the back and double black soutache surrounding the sleeve-cuffs, collar and placard.  The trousers lacked embellishments and both garments were devoid of manufacturer’s tags and quite soiled. The most desirable item in the group was the jacket which was a burgundy-colored wool shell, lined with a tan satin material with tan-colored elasticized cuffs, collar and waistband. What really makes this jacket noteworthy are the two dated patches (one affixed to the left breast and the other on the right shoulder) from EUCOM Northern and Western Conferences (1951 and 1952).

The front of the Karlsruhe, Germany baseball uniform shows the flannel “A,” black soutache and heavy soiling (image source: eBay image).

After an email exchange with the seller, I was able to conclude that the veteran was assigned to either the USAREUR base at Smiley or Gerszewski Barracks in Karlsruhe, Germany. His group assignment was with the 12th Antiaircraft Artillery (AAA) Group of the 34th AAA Brigade. Leading up to the veteran’s activation and move to Germany, the Korean Conflict caused the Federal activation of several units from this service member’s home state of New Mexico. Along with the three AAA units, the ballplayer’s guard unit, the 717th AAA Gun Battalion was called to federal active duty. The battalion was first ordered to Fort Bliss, Texas where it remained until March of 1952 when it was ordered overseas to become a part of the 12th AAA Group at Karlsruhe, Germany. The patches on the baseball jacket show the 1951 and ’52 seasons which coincide with the veteran being “transferred to the Army Reserve on 20 October 1952,” according to the seller.

Condition is always a factor for vintage collectibles and all three of these pieces have overall minor issues. The jacket’s waistband is has moth-damage on the rear of the garment. For some collectors, the evidence of game-use is a plus while others enjoy pieces to be clean and fairly free from permanent staining. Some of the garments in my own collection have very minor usage stains which by comparison (to the Karlsruhe uniform) are all pristine. I have my doubts as to how much these pieces would clean up when properly laundered after 60-plus years of being stored while filthy.

After some nice exchanges with the seller regarding the auction description (it had several misleading and erroneous details) and what proper valuation should be, the auction was relisted one additional time and remained unsold. Without a doubt, the seller was disappointed that there were no buyers who placed the same value upon this veteran’s items and so, decided to take another approach. Hopefully, there was a family member who saw that the real value in these items were that they should remain in the care of the family and the documentation that I provided to them (the unit and veteran’s history and instructions in how to obtain the specific details of his service) will help to properly tell the veteran’s story for future generations.

I remain ever vigilant watching for these historic military baseball uniforms, hoping that they find their way into the hands of collectors who see both the military and baseball historical values as I do should I be incapable of landing them for my collection. I also hope that family members are able to see past the emotions in order to properly gauge the market value in order to achieve their goals.

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Republic Baseball Mystery Medallion

This blog has been dominated by some fairly traditional examples of baseball memorabilia – jerseys and uniforms, gloves, scorecards and vintage photography (depicting baseball) – but I keep my eyes open for the unusual and unique items that would serve to tell a more complete story of the game and its inseparable connection to the U.S. armed forces.

While the war was being fought on the battlefields of Europe and the Pacific islands and upon the high seas, the American home-front was a hotbed of activity as citizens worked tirelessly and in unity to keep the troops equipped with the hardware and ammunition to take the fight to the enemy. With President Roosevelt’s January 15, 1942 “Green Light” letter to Major League Baseball’s commissioner, Kennesaw Mountain Landis, the game would continue despite the commencement of the players’ exodus to enlist in order to serve. Baseball equipment manufacturers got in the war-game in manufacturing for the effort – some making equipment to fight the war (such as Hillerich and Bradsby’s manufacturing of M1 Rifle stocks) while continuing to outfit players of the game. In addition to the supporting the domestic professional, collegiate, recreational and scholastic leagues, manufacturers supplied the troops with baseball equipment to use during periods of R&R and in conjunction with their training and fitness.

With so many Americans taking leave of their employment in order to take up arms against the enemy, factories were scrambling to fill the shortages of workers as they ramped up from their slow, depression-era production into full-scale war manufacturing. The president wrote that Major League Baseball must continue because workers, “ought to have a chance for recreation and for taking their minds off their work even more than before.” In addition to being able to attend professional ballgames, recreational leagues were formed among the manufactures and some companies even fielded teams that competed at the semi-professional level. One such team was the Boeing Bombers of Wichita, Kansas.

The Boeing Wichita plant began turning out these Waco CG-4A gliders in 1942 under a subcontract from Cessna (US Air Force Image).

Beginning in 1942, the Boeing plant in Wichita, KS began construction (under a sub-contract from Cessna) of 750 model CG-4 towed gliders in preparation for a future invasion of Europe. Around the same time, the Boeing company of Wichita formed the Boeing Bombers team that competed as semi-professionals and was comprised of solid athletes who also worked for the company. In 1942, the team won the National Semipro Championship defeating the Waco Dons in 12 innings by a score of 2-1. Boeing would continue to field the Bombers into the 1950s. One of the Boeing team alum, Daryl Spencer, went on to play for the New York and San Francisco Giants, St. Louis Cardinals, Los Angeles Dodgers and finished his career in 1963 with the Cincinnati Reds.

The ‘5″ and “4” above the Air Force wings appear to be an indication of the date this medallion was awarded to its recipient (eBay image).

Close examination of the medallion, the Republic Aviation logo (sans the word-mark) is superimposed over set of Air Force pilots’ wings.

While reviewing the results of one of my online auction searches, I saw a listing for a sterling silver medallion that was associated with Republic Aviation and prominently featured a baseball player on the face along with what appeared to be a two-digit year (54). The medallion is approximately two inches in diameter and features a machined hole for a suspension. Across the bottom is a set of USAAC/USAAF/USAF pilot’s wings with the Republic Aviation superimposed over the center. I performed some cursory, fruitless searches for anything related to the now-defunct aircraft manufacture having fielded a baseball club, perhaps similar to the aforementioned Boeing Bombers. I decided that being in possession of the artifact was far more interesting then to let it pass by and I could conduct the research once I have the medallion in hand.

Clarence “Buster” Bray of the 1941 Boston Braves worked for Republic Aviation early in the war prior to serving in the armed forces.

After the package arrived, I took out my loupe for a close-up examination hoping to find any detail that might help with research. Other than what was visible in the seller’s photographs, there was nothing hidden. I decided to spend some time researching Republic Aviation’s history to no avail regarding anything related to a baseball team. I did manage to find Clarence Wilber “Buster” Bray, a four-game-centerfielder (with 11 at-bats and an .091 batting average) for the 1941 Boston Braves who spent part of the war working for Republic Aviation before serving, himself.

Republic was absorbed into Fairchild in 1965. I found a June 2013 article in Air & Space (Smithsonian) Magazine by Joshua Stoff (curator for the Cradle of Aviation Museum on Long Island, in which he describes having peek into the archives of Republic Aviation in 1987 just prior to the Fairchild management’s decision to destroy every item. From that article, I was led to the American Airpower Museum’s website on which I submitted a request for assistance in researching baseball at Republic Aviation.

Within a day, Jacky Clyman responded and directed me to Ken Neubeck, president of the Long Island Republic Airport Historical Society (LIRAHS). Mr. Neubuck was a former employee of Fairchild Republic and recalled that the company, “fielded a team for several years, up to the point when the company closed in 1987.”  This was the first positive news that I had received since I began my investigation. Ken asked, “Is there any particular significance for the 1954 team?”

I informed Ken about the medallion and that I was seeking anything at all regarding a company team, what their record was for that season and why they might have been given the medallion. I also sent him an image to give him a visual reference.

The next day, Mr. Neubeck replied that he had spent time searching through his collection of Republic Aviation’s newspapers from 1954 in search of anything pertaining to baseball.  He stated, “Unfortunately, your medallion makes no reference to whether it is softball or baseball,” and provided me with two images of the newspapers for me to review. The articles mentioned the Republic Aviation Corporation’s (RAC) sponsorship of a local little league baseball team which had some on-field success as well as an RAC varsity intramural softball team. Ken was unsuccessful in uncovering anything relating to a baseball team and then stated, “I have to believe that it must be a RAC varsity softball participation medallion to the softball team members.”

This medallion from 1949 was sold in an earlier auction listing.

As I was writing this article, I did discover an older auction listing of the same medallion dated, 1949 that provided no history or provenance – another dead end. While there is nothing conclusive or definitive in what was provided to me by Ken Nuebeck, it is a safe to agree with his assessment.

The medallion, if nothing else, displays nicely with my baseball collection and has a direct link to military history with Republic’s rich heritage of warplane manufacturing.

Nisei Relocation Camp Baseball: Authenticating a Uniform

This WWII blue cotton duck Fifth Army uniform dates from WWII and is in pristine condition. The Great Lakes Naval Training station jersey is a reproduction (made by Ebbets Field Flannels). The Naval Academy varsity letter is from 1944. The Third Army Championship scorecard lists rosters from a few teams and contains a mixture of major and minor league players among the regular service members who fill out the batting order.

I am a bit of a jersey-nut. If I tallied all of my wearable sports jerseys, I think they would number somewhere in the 40s. The majority of that number consists of baseball jerseys – the most significant percentage of those are flannel reproductions of vintage minor league, negro league and WWII military baseball versions. Since I started to actively pursue militaria (beyond what I have inherited from family members), I have searched for and acquired a few baseball jerseys (three of which also included the accompanying trousers). For my military baseball collecting, landing jerseys (especially those with provenance) is the ultimate in my collecting quest.

I will be focusing some of my future posts on the vintage uniforms that are currently in my collection. Though a few of them are in need of more thorough research (in order to determine when and where they might have been used), forcing myself to write about them and share them on this blog will compel me to press further into locating any sort of data that can help me to connect them more specifically with history. In previous posts, I have documented some of the military baseball uniforms that eluded my pursuits (Satin on Diamonds: a Rare WWII Army Baseball Uniform, Obscure Military Baseball Jerseys – Rare Finds or Fabrications)) though in writing about them, helps me to preserve a record of what exists in order to have a resource for analysis.

I have seen several vintage baseball uniforms (specifically jerseys) that have been listed at auction that would be fantastic to add to my collection but they don’t truly fit in with my narrow military focus. Last year, one uniform came to market that I really wanted to pull the trigger on as it was very closely aligned with my interest but still fell outside of the military. It went unsold and was relisted three times with price reductions that were inching the grouping closer to a reasonable price range for me and had it gotten a bit lower (before it sold), this article would be covering my sixth vintage jersey (uniform) rather than another one that got away.

This autographed Nisei team photo shows several of the players wearing (what appears to be) the same uniform that is listed within an auction for a purported Nisei baseball uniform that was used in one of the War Relocation Center camps (eBay image).

There are volumes upon volumes of books and personal narratives of one of our nation’s darkest actions ever perpetrated upon its own citizenry; Executive Order 9066 which called for and executed the Internment of Japanese Americans, German Americans, and Internment of Italian Americans was signed by Democrat President Franklin D. Roosevelt. The order authorized the Secretary of War to establish Military Areas and to remove from those areas anyone who might threaten the war effort and was able to accomplish this by withholding due process to those subjected to the terms of the order. On the United States’ West Coast, all Americans of Japanese Ancestry were removed from their businesses, property and homes (many, forcibly) and ultimately relocated to large camps that were hastily created by the War Department within the interior of the United States (away from the sensitive military areas) and greatly lacked in necessities and most comforts afforded to even the poorest of the poor.

Baseball game at Manzanar War Relocation Center, Owens Valley, California, 1943. (Source: Library of Congress: Ansel Adams)

To counter the effects of the isolation and monotony of incarcerated camp-life, these Americans engaged in as many normal activities as possible. Baseball teams were formed and, in some of the camps, substantial leagues were formed (at the Gila camp, a 32-team league) and competed against each other. One ball-playing internee (George Omachi) noted, ”It was demeaning and humiliating to be incarcerated in your own country. Without baseball, camp life would have been miserable.” I can’t help but consider that many of the young military-aged men who played on the camp teams opted to also serve their country, leaving behind their imprisoned families to serve the nation that stripped them of their Constitutionally-protected rights.

This three-piece baseball uniform set could have been originally used by a professional team as noted by the ghosted lettering across the jersey front (eBay image).

The uniform sold for less than $400 which, if it truly is from a Nisei and minor league team, is worth the selling price (eBay screenshot).

In terms of collecting and possessing a uniform worn by a camp ballplayer who could have also served in the armed forces, it would have been a nice addition to accompany my other items. Further justification that the uniform bears military historical significance is that the camps were all administered and secured by the U.S. military (predominantly, the U.S. Army). This particular uniform may also have possessed other baseball historical importance. Close examination of the jersey shows ghosting of lettering on the chest that could indicate prior use before it found its way into the camp. Accompanying the uniform was an autographed team photo showing players wearing (what appears to be) the same jersey and trousers as was listed in the online auction. The listing description didn’t provide anything in terms of provenance or any details surrounding how the seller obtained the items or who they came from. Had the auction gone unsold and relisted at yet a lower price, I would have pressed for information to help support the claims made within the listing.

What is challenging about the uniform is the lack of readily available analytics to validate the claims made by the uniform’s seller. In researching the uniform, one can only utilize what is visible within the auction photographs while placing very little weight upon the descriptive text. What can be seen:

  • The material and construction of the uniform (wool flannel)
  • Ghosting of lettering across the chest (though what the lettering was is indistinguishable in the photos)
  • The uniform has matching manufacturer’s tags in the collar of the jersey and inside the trousers (Powers Athletic Wear; Waterloo, Iowa)
  • The uniform’s design and appointments (the soutache on the jersey front and trouser legs)
  • The matching cap design: six panel with leather sweatband and soft bill

Without a database of labels for the manufacturer, specifically dating the uniform inside of a broad range (1940s to 1960s) is difficult. At the very least, the uniform was made after the 1930s (comparing it to other known uniform designs within these eras).  I unsuccessfully scoured the internet for anything related to Nisei baseball in search of photographs that could support the seller’s claims. Surprisingly, there is a fair amount to wade through but nothing like this uniform could be located.

Relaxing behind the lines: members of the 442nd Regimental Combat Team (RCT) take in a game in France in 1945 (source: Oregon Nikkei Endowment on Flickr).

The seller claimed that the uniform was previously used by a minor-league team, stating “It was a uniform from the California Fresno Bees/Minor League team.”  He or she mentioned the (then) common practice of handing down old uniforms, often removing the names and number prior to giving them to the new team(s). There are no records that identify the name or location of a professional team fitting the one provided within the auction details serving to increase doubt as to the veracity of the listing as presented. Without the provided photo, there is virtually nothing to corroborate the story that this uniform had been used by a Nisei team, however the photo is very convincing.

Though I was unconvinced, had the price been a bit lower, I probably would have pulled the trigger and made the purchase. I remain mixed, however that I would be celebrating or left disappointed with the purchase of an overpriced vintage adult baseball uniform that lacked the purported history. I am genuinely hopeful that the person who ended up buying the uniform was able to fully research and validate that it truly is what it was listed as.

I would be truly honored to have one of these uniforms from the 442nd RCT baseball team in my collection (source: Baseball’s Greatest Sacrifice).

Nisei Military and Baseball Resources:

 

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